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Chemistry and Nanomaterials. Carl C. Wamser Portland State University Nanomaterials Course - June 27, 2006. 6 billion people 8000 mile diameter. 10 billion components 8 inch diameter. Nanoscale = billionths (10 -9 ). Effects of Nanoscale. Structural differences:. Nanoscale Carbon.

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chemistry and nanomaterials

Chemistry and Nanomaterials

Carl C. Wamser

Portland State University

Nanomaterials Course - June 27, 2006

effects of nanoscale
Effects of Nanoscale

Structural differences:

Nanoscale Carbon

Bulk Carbon

C60 (Buckeyball)

Smalley, Curl, Kroto

1996 Nobel Prize

Graphite

Diamond

Carbon Nanotubes

Sumio Iijima - 1991

instrumentation imaging
Instrumentation / Imaging
  • “Quantum Corral”
  • 48 Fe atoms positioned by the STM used to image them

http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/home_facts.html

chemistry issues
Chemistry Issues
  • Structure / Dynamics / Synthesis
  • Structure-Function Correlations
  • Self-Assembled Systems
  • Applications:
    • Materials
    • Biological
    • Environmental
organic leds
Organic LEDs

Structure-Function Correlations (emission wavelengths)

quantum effects
Quantum Effects
  • Band gap depends on particle size(number of atoms in the particle)

Fluorescence of cadmium selenide nanoparticles

2 nm

4 nm

chemical bonding
Chemical Bonding
  • Forces used to assemble structure:
    • Ionic
    • Metallic
    • Covalent
    • H-bonding
    • Metal-ligand
    • Van der Waals
    • π-π stacking
ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding
  • Molecular beaker epitaxy
  • Layer-by-layer growth of polyelectrolytes
  • Tom MalloukPenn State U

http://www.mapr.ucl.ac.be/~jonas/Home_page_AJ/Research/ESA/ESA.html

ionic electrostatic effects
Ionic / Electrostatic Effects
  • A molecular elevator
  • Responsive to acid/base
  • J. D. Badjic, et al., Accts. Chem. Res., in press.
  • J.F. Stoddart, UCLA
ionic electrostatic effects12
Ionic / Electrostatic Effects
  • Conformational Molecular Rectifiers, A. Troisi and M. A. Ratner,Nano Lett., 4(4), 591-595 (2004).
metallic bonding
MetallicBonding

Nanoscale gold has different properties than bulk gold, including: appearance, solubility, and melting point.

Gold Statue

Gold nanoparticles

thiol stabilized gold nanoparticle

melting point: 1337 °K

Jim Hutchison, U. Oregon

http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~hutchlab

gold nanoparticles (2 nm) in solution

melting point: 650 °K

covalent bonding carbon
Covalent Bonding - Carbon
  • Single-walled
  • carbon nanotubes:
  • armchair - metallic
  • zigzag - semiconducting
  • chiral - semiconducting
  • multi-walled - metallic
covalent bonding carbon15
Covalent Bonding - Carbon

Carbon nanotubes coated with diamond nanocrystals

M. L.Terranova, et al., Chem. Mater., 17(12) pp 3214 - 3220

hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen Bonding

DNA

Double

Helix

http://www.haveland.com/ graphics/dna-3d.jpg

charge trapping memory device
Charge-Trapping Memory Device
  • Liu, C-Y.; Bard, A.J.; Acc. Chem. Res. (1999), 32, 235-234.
self assembled monolayer
Self-Assembled Monolayer

10 nm

  • Monolayer of DDB on graphite

(didodecylbenzene)

http://www.nanoscience.com/education/gallery/DDB_ani.htm

van der waals interactions
Van der Waals Interactions
  • SAMMSSelf-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports

Glen Fryxell, PNNL

http://samms.pnl.gov/

photosynthetic reaction center
Photosynthetic Reaction Center

( 1988 Nobel Prize )

http://www.mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de/~michael.hutter/rcenter.html

resources
Resources
  • Nanochemistry references and websites:
    • Handbook of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan, ed. (2004)
    • Molecular Nanotechnology, D. E. Newton, ed. (2002)
    • Integrated Chemical Systems, A. J. Bard (1994)
    • Engines of Creation, K. Eric Drexler (1986) ( http://www.foresight.org/EOC/ )
    • “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”, Richard Feynman (1959)

( http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html )

    • National Nanotechnology Initiative ( http://www.nano.gov/ )
    • Nano Letters - ACS Journal ( http://pubs.acs.org/journals/nalefd/ )
    • Materials Today - British journal ( http://www.materialstoday.com )