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Chapter 1 Chemistry: An Introduction. CHY 105: Fundamentals of Chemistry. Chapter Outline. Chemistry defined Examples of chemistry in everyday life Chemistry in context The natural sciences Branches of chemistry Chemistry in history Methods of science Basic vs. applied science

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Chapter 1Chemistry: An Introduction

CHY 105: Fundamentals of Chemistry


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Chapter Outline

  • Chemistry defined

    • Examples of chemistry in everyday life

  • Chemistry in context

    • The natural sciences

  • Branches of chemistry

  • Chemistry in history

  • Methods of science

    • Basic vs. applied science

    • Public vs. private funding


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Chemistry

  • Chemistry – study of the matter (materials) of the universe and the changes that this matter undergoes

    • Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space

      • Examples of matter and “non-matter”


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Chemistry

  • What chemists study about the matter:

    • Composition

    • Structure

    • Properties

      • Related to composition and structure

    • Chemical changes the matter will undergo

    • Relationship between the matter and:

      • The environment

      • Human health


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Chemistry and Everyday Life

  • Better (?) living through chemistry

    • Wrinkle-free cotton

      • Dr. Ruth Benerito

    • CFCs and the ozone layer

    • Lead paint



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Physical Sciences

Biological Sciences

Chemistry in Context


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Branches of Chemistry

  • Inorganic

    • Study of matter this is primarily of mineral (non-living origin)

  • Organic

    • Study of carbon containing compounds

      • Once believed that all carbon containing compounds were of living origin


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Branches of Chemistry

  • Analytical

    • Study of matter to determine the identity and quantity of its components

      • Forensic chemistry is a sub-branch

  • Physical

    • Study of the structure of matter and the influence of energy on matter

      • Materials chemistry is a sub-branch


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Kevlar Inventor Joins Women's Hall of Fame

  • Chemical Week, October 8, 2003 — Retired DuPont scientist Stephanie Kwolek, whose research led to the discovery of Kevlar aramid fiber, was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, NY, on October 4. Kwolek joined DuPont in 1946 as laboratory chemist in Buffalo, NY and spent 40 years with the company, mostly at its experimental station at Wilmington, DE. DuPont says nearly 3,000 law enforcement officers have survived potentially fatal or disabling injuries because they were wearing body armor made from aramid fiber. All U.S. combat soldiers have worn Kevlar helmets since the 1991 Gulf War, it says.


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Branches of Chemistry

  • Environmental Chemistry

    • Study of pollutants to identify their sources, to determine the quantities present , and to discover ways to address the issues associated with them

    • Often considered a branch of _____________


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Branches of Chemistry

  • Biochemistry

    • Study of reactions that take place in living organisms

      • Links the biological and physical sciences

      • Branch of science most important to the medical sciences


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History of Chemistry

  • Metals

    • Gold, copper (3000 BCE), bronze (copper/tin alloy, 2000 BCE), iron (1500 BCE)


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History of Chemistry

  • Chemical Arts

    • Pottery

    • Ceramics

    • Dyes

    • Embalming techniques

    • Perfumes

    • Brewing of alcoholic beverages


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History of Chemistry

  • Greek Philosophers, ~400 – 300 BCE

    • First to speculate about the nature of matter

    • Proposed that all matter is composed of 4 elements

      • Air, earth, fire, water

    • Aristotle added a 5th element

      • Ether – to glow


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History of Chemistry

  • Greek Philosophers, ~400 – 300 BCE

    • Democritus proposed an alternate explanation of the matter of the universe

      • All matter is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atomus

        • “theory not well supported by Aristotle

        • Therefore, Democritus’ “theory” was not widely accepted at the time


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History of Chemistry

  • Alchemy - Two pursuits

    • Search for a means to convert “base” metals into gold

    • Search for the elixir of life

      • Substance that would lead to immortality


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History of Chemistry

  • Advances from Alchemy

    • Many new substances where identified

      • Plaster of Paris, nitric acid….

    • New lab techniques and equipment developed

    • New medicines identified


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History of Chemistry

  • Modern Chemistry, ~1600 on

    • First to use scientific method

    • Methodical approach to problem solving

    • Based on hypothesis testing


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Modern Chemistry, ~1600 on

  • Boyle (1600’s)

    • Studied the affect of pressure on the volume of gases

  • Priestly (1700’s)

    • Among other things, first to discover and study the properties of oxygen

      • Came to US to avoid religious persecution

      • Some give Schele in Sweden credit for discovering oxygen


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    Modern Chemistry

    • Lavoisier (mid/late 1700’s)

      • Called the father of modern chemistry

      • Proposed the law of conservation of matter – matter can neither be created nor destoyed


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    Modern Chemistry

    • John Dalton (1800’s)

      • Proposed atomic theory

  • Marie and Pierre Curie (1890 -1900’s)

    • First to study radioactivity

    • Identified several new radioactive elements

      • Polonium and radium

  • Neils Bohr (1900)

    • Proposed theory of atomic structure



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    Scientific Method

    • Make observations

      • Observations must be recordable and repeatable

      • Observations may be:

        • Quantitative

          or

        • Qualitative


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    Scientific Method

    • Develop hypotheses to explain the observations

      • Hypothesis – tentative explanation of the observations


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    Scientific Method

    • Perform Experiments

      • Make predictions based on the hypothesis

        • If the hypothesis is true……what else will be true

        • Test accuracy of the prediction

      • Repeat for all hypotheses

      • Experiments often lead to new observations and more hypotheses to test


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    Scientific Method

    • Analyze results and share findings and conclusions

      • Publish results in journals

      • Present findings at conferences…..

    • Public versus Private Research


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    Natural Laws and Theories

    • From scientific research come theories and laws

      • Theory (also called a model) - explanation of observed behavior based on significant data

      • Natural Law - statement/summary of observed behavior

        • Law of conservation of matter


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    Types of Scientific Research

    • Basic research

      • scientific research for the sake of knowledge, no immediate application in mind.

    • Applied research

      •  scientific research with the short-term goal of solving a specific problem

        • begin the research with an application in mind.


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    Chapter 1 Questions

    • #9 and #13 on page 13