Northeast Asia Cooperative Symposium on the Protection of Foot & Mouth Disease” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. International activities for tackling Transboundary/Emerging Animal Diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease Northeast Asia Cooperative Symposium onthe Protection of Foot & Mouth Disease” Kagoshima University 17-18 March 2011 Dr Teruhide Fujita Former OIE Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific

  2. Contents • Outbreaks of Transboundary Animal Diseases(越境性疾病)(TADs)/Emerging Animal Diseases (EADs)(新興疾病) • TADs/EADs negative impacts • FMD(口蹄疫)situation, particularly in East Asia • International Standards on Animal Health • International/Regional Activities and Collaboration for tackling TADs/EADs • Summary

  3. Current outbreaks of TADs/EADs • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)(口蹄疫) • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)(高病原性鳥インフルエンザ) • Pandemic H1N1 2009(パンデミック H1N1 2009) • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)(重症急性呼吸器症候群) • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)(牛海綿状脳症) • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) • (豚繁殖・呼吸器障害症候群) • Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR)(小反芻獣疫 ) • African Swine Fever (ASF)(アフリカ豚コレラ) • Others

  4. TADs and EADs • TADs (Transboundary Animal Diseases; 越境性疾病): an infection beyond a border • EADs (Emerging Animal Diseases;新興疾病): a new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogenic agent. (spreading to a new geographic area or population, or a previously unrecognized pathogenic agent or disease diagnosed for the first time)

  5. Zoonotic potential of animal pathogens • 60% of human pathogens (zoonotic) • 75% of emerging diseases (zoonotic) • 80% of agents having a potential bioterrorist use (zoonotic pathogens) ----- Negative impacts • Threats to human and animal health • Food safety • Trade issues & Food security • Socio-economic confusion

  6. Examples of Economic Impacts by TADs/EADs • Economic losses - Low productivity of animals - Need of Destruction of animals for disease control - Movement prohibition of animals and animal products, and trade, including Tourism - Losses of income • Example • FMD in Great Britain in 2001: >4 million destroyed animals Prohibition of import/export FMD spread to other European countries Burning & animal welfare Changed control policies; e.g. (EU vaccination policy) economic losses (13.1~18.9 billion USD; 1.1% of UK GDP by BBC)

  7. Why TADs/EADs ?? • Globalization (borderless era) -Increasing movement of people, animals and animal products, etc. • Increase of human population & urbanization • Environmental changes including global climate change • Changed agriculture production systems (e.g. BSE, etc.) • Biological adaptation (e.g. HPAI) • Close relationship between domestic animals and wild life

  8. FMD occurrences at a global level • For centuries known as a severe, highly contagious viral disease with significant economic impacts • Morbidity approaching 100% • 7 strains (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia1) • Endemic in several parts of Asia, most of Africa and the Middle East, and endemic in only a few countries in Latin America • Recent occurrences sporadically in typically free areas

  9. FMD occurrences in Northeast Asia • Occurrences in 2010~2011 (2nd wave) - China (PR; O & A), Chinese Taipei (O), Mongolia (O), Russia (O), Japan (O), Korea (RO; O), Korea (DPR; O) • Recently in 1999~2000 (1st wave) North East Asia with O-Asian topo type; Chinese Taipei (1999~, after the cases in 1997), Korea (RO; after the 66 year interval), Japan (2000, after the 92 year interval, Eastern Russia (2000, after 36 year interval and Mongolia (2000, after the 27 year interval)

  10. FMD cases in China, PR, 2010 Jan. & Mar. 2010~ O & A types Source: OIE

  11. FMD cases in Chinese Taipei, 2010 • 12 February 2010 (+) - July + Dec. 2010 (NSP antibody) • Type O • Swine Source: OIE

  12. Type O • Cattle, goats, camelidae & sheep Source: OIE

  13. FMD cases in Russia, 2010 • August 2010 ~ Oct. 2010 • Cattle, Sheep and Swine • Type O Source: OIE

  14. Miyazaki Prefecture • 20 April 2010 ~ 27 July 2010; release of • official restrictions • The biggest negative impact in • animal health history in the country • O type Source: OIE

  15. FMD cases in Korea, RO, 2010-2011 • April 2010~ • Type O Source: OIE

  16. 25/12/2010~ • Report to OIE on 8/2/2011 • Type O FMD in Dem. People’s Rep. Korea Source: OIE

  17. International Organizations for Animal Health • OIE: World Organization for Animal Health; established in 1924 (pre-UN), 178 Member countries/territories, HQ in Paris, France, 5 Regional Representations including Asia and the Pacific Region (based in Tokyo) • FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 191 Member countries, Disease control support, HQ in Rome, Italy • WHO: World Health Organization, 193 Member countries/territories, Zoonoses, HQ in Geneva, Switzerland

  18. International Rules for Prevention and Control of TADs/EADs • Early detection, Transparent & Timely Notification =country’s reputation, Rapid Response and International Collaboration • International Standards for Animal Health - OIEAnimal Health Codes - OIEManual of Diagnostic tests and Vaccines • Assist by OIE to identify ability of countries to comply with international standards and good governance (using the OIE PVS tool)

  19. International & Regional Activities and Collaboration (Examples) • International level; • FAO/OIE Global Framework for progressive control of transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs); Global strategies and Regional alliance • Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (including FMD) • OIE official declaration of FMD freedom • Twinning Programme: Support to laboratory activities • WTO-SPS: International trade in animals and animal products; OIE as the international standard setting organization for animal health • One World One Health (OWOH)

  20. International & Regional Activities and Collaboration (Examples) • 2. Regional level • Regional mechanism of GF-TADs including FMD control • Regional initiatives: • -EU:European Commission for the Control of FMD • (EuFMD); Rome, Italy, Information exchange of • FMD, Monitoring the threat of FMDV in • neighboring regions • - Southeast Asia: OIE -SEACFMD, ASEAN + PR China, • progressive zoning and FMD freedom with • vaccination by 2020 • - South America: the Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan

  21. Veterinary Education and TADs/EADs Background • Increased cases of TADs/EADs including Zoonoses & growing threats (negative impacts & human & animal health) • Strongly increasing social demand for veterinarians’ performance in disease control • Veterinary Curricula need to include ‘training modules in managing early detection and rapid response mechanisms’ • Importance to secure highly qualified veterinarians • Disparities in education contents, requirements & graduate competencies • Collaboration of Veterinary Services for international animal health

  22. Veterinary Education and TADs/EADs • Needs • Adequate delivery of veterinary services • Veterinary Education andResearchesto be further developed for the • increasing demand on animal health safeguards including zoonoses • Veterinary Education Organizations ; • - define and implement curriculum models including Training for • ensuring graduate veterinarians in delivering services in animal health, • public health, food production, economics including trade and animal • welfare • - collaborateby Developed countries’ Veterinary Education • Organizationswith those in developing countries for a support of animal • health measurements such as training.

  23. Summary • Globalization and thus increasing occurrences of TADs/EADs such as FMD with threats 2. Recent FMD cases – the 2nd wave in Northeast Asia • Early detection & rapid response by National Veterinary Services, and strengthening Veterinary Services 4. International Standards for TADs/EADs control • Veterinary Education to be further developed for graduate veterinarians to cope with the increasing demand on safeguards in conjunction with Animal Health including Zoonoses