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AH 120 Human Diseases. Studying Diseases Inflammation. Terminology. Disease : Altered function/physiology of a body organ or system Etiology : The cause of the disease Pathology : the abnormal physiology that produces the disease and its manifestations. Terminology ( cont.).

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Ah 120 human diseases

AH 120 Human Diseases

Studying Diseases

Inflammation


Terminology
Terminology

  • Disease : Altered function/physiology of a body organ or system

  • Etiology : The cause of the disease

  • Pathology : the abnormal physiology that produces the disease and its manifestations


Terminology cont
Terminology (cont.)

Manifestations

Signs

  • Physical observations or measurements

    • Pulse, Blood Pressure, Temperature, etc

      Symptoms

  • What the patient says or feels

    • Pain, difficulty breathing, etc

      Test Findings


Terminology cont1
Terminology (cont.)

Diagnosis:

  • Determining the disease process by evaluating the manifestations

  • Also includes:

  • History

    • Chief complaint, past medical history, social history, occupational history

  • Physical exam and tests to obtain signs and symptoms

    Prognosis : prediction of the outcome, usually expressed as likelihood of recovery or survival


Tests

Tests

Besides signs and symptoms, test findings are the other category of disease manifestations used to make the diagnosis


Laboratory tests
Laboratory Tests

  • Blood and body fluids tests: CBC, electrolytes, UA, etc

  • Cytology: biopsies, sputum samples

  • Bacteriologic studies: C & S, Gram staining, AFB


Radiologic tests
Radiologic Tests

Simple chest x-ray showing Tuberculosis in the left lung


Radiologic tests1
Radiologic Tests

Using a contrast medium

Angiogram of carotid artery


Radionuclide tests scintiscans
Radionuclide Tests (Scintiscans)

  • Administering a radioisoptope and then scanning the area with a Geiger counter-type imaging device

Bone scan of head chest and pelvis showing tumors


Computerized tomography ct scans
Computerized Tomography-CT Scans-

Different planes or slices are x-rayed and then a computer generates a composite image



Magnetic resonance imaging mri
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Similar to CT scan BUT uses magnetism and radio frequencies INSTEAD of ionizing radiation to createimage


Electrocardiogram ekg or ecg
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)

  • Tracing of the electrical activity of the heart by placing electrodes on the arms, legs, and chest


Electroencephalogram eeg
Electroencephalogram (EEG)

  • Tracing of the electrical activity in the brain by placing electrodes on the head

normal

During grand mal seizure


Diagnostic medical sonography dms ultrasound
Diagnostic Medical Sonography-DMS-Ultrasound

Image created by the echoes of high frequency sound waves


Endoscopy
Endoscopy

  • Using a scope to view the inside of the body through a natural orifice or through a small surgical incision

  • Examples : Colonoscopy, Bronchoscopy, Esophagogastroscopy, Laparoscopy, etc


Pulmonary function tests pfts
Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs)

  • Measurement of lung volumes and flow rates


Disease treatment
Disease Treatment

Therapeutic treatment : affects the outcome of the disease

  • Includes drugs, radiation, surgery, nutrition, exercise, etc

    Palliative treatment: Treating symptoms only without affecting the outcome

  • Surgery for pain relief with a terminal disease


Inflammation

Inflammation

The response of living tissue to injury. The inflammatory process removes injured cells and debris and contains the area of injury.


Triggers of inflammation
Triggers of Inflammation

NOTE!Infection and Inflammation are not the same thing!


Septicemia sepsis

Septicemia (Sepsis)

Infection spreads via the blood stream and causes infectious inflammation in many body tissues/systems.


White blood cells pmns
White Blood Cells: PMNs

Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

Neutrophils

  • Largest quantity of the WBCs

  • Perform phagocytosis

    Eosinophils

  • Number increases with allergy

    Basophils

  • Contain histamine

  • Migrate out of the blood and become mast cells


White blood cells mononuclear leukocytes
White Blood Cells: Mononuclear Leukocytes

  • Monocytes

    • Largest in size of WBCs

    • Perform phagocytosis

    • Called Macrophages or Histiocytes when they migrate out of blood

  • Lymphocytes

    • Second largest in quantity

    • Release lymphotoxin and lymphokine

    • More active in the immune process


The inflammatory process
The Inflammatory Process

4 Stages

  • Histamine released and blood flow increases as does permeability

  • Neutrophil exudation

  • Monocyte exudation

  • Repair/Restoration

Trigger: Trauma and Infection


Repair restoration

Repair & Restoration

The Inflammatory process may end in one of three ways:



Abscess formation
Abscess Formation

Brain Abscess

Seen with infectious inflammation

Pus consists of dead tissue, WBCs, and microbes


Granuloma formation when foreign material or microbes can t be phagocytosed
Granuloma Formation(when foreign material or microbes can’t be phagocytosed)

Non-phagocytosed material surrounded by WBCs and fibrous

tissue. Granuloma has a solid center while an abscess has a

liquid (pus) center.


Acute inflammation manifestations
Acute Inflammation Manifestations

Local (due to increased bloodflow and permeability)

  • Redness

  • Heat

  • Swelling/Edema

  • Pain

    General

  • Fever

  • Leukocytosis


Chronic inflammation
Chronic Inflammation

Insidious and long lasting. Exudation and repair occur together

  • There is less exudate and it has monocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells but no neutrophils

  • Fibrosis (Scarring)

  • Manifestations are less severe than acute


Treatment
Treatment

Drugs

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs: aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil), naprosin (Alleve)

    • All reduce severity of process and its signs and symptoms

  • Steroids – inhibit severity of exudation and edema

  • Antihistaminies – decrease severity of inflammation when caused by allergy

  • Antimicrobials – for infectious inflammation

    Rest and gradual exercise

    Drainage of abscess