Reconstruction Work with a partner to discuss the term above and create a simple definition. Connect the term with the period after the Civil War. Be prepared to discuss as a class.
Reconstruction Era…Imagine. • The year is 1865, and the Civil War is finally over. The South’s primary labor system, slavery, has been abolished. Around 4.5 million African Americans now have their freedom but lack money, property, education, and opportunity. Southern states beginning the process of readmission to the Union, ` the effects of war continue to be felt throughout the South. Rail lines are unusable; farms plantations, and factories lie in ruins. • How can Northern resources help the South? • In what ways can the South rebuild its economy? • What can the government do to assist African Americans?
Reconstruction Recovery After Civil War
Reconstruction The period during which the US began to rebuild after the Civil War
Southern Resentment • War and Reconstruction resulted in southern resentment toward Northern and Southern African Americans • Led to the whites political, economic, and social control of the South • Economic and political gains of former slaves proved to be temporary
Political Impact of the Civil War—Lincoln • Lincoln believed that he US was ONE indivisible nation—it had prevailed and reunited despite war • He believed that because secession was illegal, Confederate governments in the South were illegitimate and that the states had never really left the Union • Reconstruction was a matter of restoring state governments that were loyal to the Union • Also believed in leniency —to reunite the nation, the federal government shouldn’t punish the South, but act “with malice towards none, with charity for all…to bind up the nation’s wounds…”
Think About It • Did the southern states commit treason by rebelling? • Do they deserve punishment? Think about the prompts above and discuss with a neighbor. Be prepared to share with the class in a brief discussion.
Political Impact—Radical Republicans Part 1 • Lincoln’s assassination allowed Radical Republicans to influence the process of Reconstruction in such a way to “punish” the Southern states, while still seeming merciful • The states that had seceded were not allowed back into the Union immediately, but were put under military occupation
Political Impact—Radical Republicans Part 2 • Believed in aggressively guaranteeing voting and other civil rights to African Americans • Clashed with President Andrew Johnson over the issue of civil rights for freed slaves • Impeached him, but failed to remove him from office
Political Impact—Civil War Amendments • 13th Amendment: Slavery was abolished permanently in the US • Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Political Impact—Civil War Amendments • 14th Amendment: States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American • Ratified in July 1868 • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote black citizens • American Indians were not granted citizenship until 1924
Political Impact—Civil War Amendments • 15th Amendment: Voting rights were guaranteed regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”—as in, former slaves • Ratified in 1870. • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. • The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Economic Impact—Southern States • States of the Confederacy were devastated and bitter after the war • Confederate money was worthless • Major cities were left in ruins (Richmond, Atlanta) • Source of labor was affected; due to loss of life during war and the end of slavery • South remained an agriculture-based economy, as well as the poorest section of the nation [for many decades following the war]
Economic Impact—North and Midwest • Emerged with strong and growing industrial economies • Laid the foundation for sweeping industrialization of the nation (except the South) • Led to emergence of US as a global economic power by the beginning of the 20th century • Completion of Transcontinental Railroad furthered westward movement of settlers into states between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean
Post-War Life • Those that were slaves took the opportunity presented by the Union troops to achieve freedom • Even though slavery had ended, African Americans didn’t achieve full equality until ~100 years • For the common soldier, warfare was brutal and camp life was lonely; many soldiers returned home wounded or disabled • On the home front, women were required to assume nontraditional roles (e.g. factory workers)
Social Impact—African Americans • The Emancipation Proclamation allowed for enlistment of African American soldiers
Social Impact—Common Soldiers • Warfare often involved hand-to-hand combat • Wartime diaries and letters home recorded the harsh reality of war • After the war, especially in the South, soldiers returned home to find their lives in poverty and/or destroyed • Soldiers on both sides lived with permanent disabilities from the war
Social Impact—Women on the Home Front • Managed homes and families with scarce resources • Often faced poverty and hunger • Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing, and war industries
Reconstruction—Lincoln’s Plan Met with Resistance • Confederate states could rejoin the Union if 10% of people on pre-war voting lists took an oath of allegiance • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) • Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. • He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers.
Reconstruction—Lincoln’s Plan Met with Resistance • Radical Republicans wanted the South to suffer • Make sure that slavers would never retake power • African Americans to be given full citizenship and right to vote • Radical Republicans passed Wade-Davis Bill—to put power of Reconstruction under Congress • Lincoln killed it with a pocket veto • Lincoln was assassinated; left Reconstruction up in the air
Support for Reconstruction After the Civil War, both Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant urged reconciliation between the North and the South
Ulysses S. Grant’s post-war Contributions • Urged Radical Republicans not to be harsh with former Confederates • Was elected president and served during most of Reconstruction • Advocated rights for freedmen (African Americans) • Opposed retribution directed at the defeated South
Robert E. Lee’s post-war Contributions • Urged Southerners to reconcile and rejoin the United States • Served as president of Washington College (Washington & Lee University) • Emphasized the importance of education to the nation’s future
Frederick Douglass’ post-war Contributions • Supported full equality for African Americans • Advocated for the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments • Encouraged federal government actions to protect the rights of freedmen in the South • Served as ambassador to Haiti and in the civil service
What marked the end of Reconstruction? • Read page 399 section entitled “Election of 1876” with a partner using the reciprocal reading strategy. • Partner A reads a sentence • Partner B reads a sentence • When paragraph is completed verbally summarize the paragraph. • Complete process until selection is read. • Complete chart in your notes
Results/End of Reconstruction • Reconstruction period ended following the presidential election of 1876 • Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Samuel J. Tilden • Southern democrats agreed to support Republicans in the electoral college vote in exchange for the end of military occupation • Known as Compromise of 1877—enabled former Confederates who controlled the Democratic Party to regain power • This opened the door for the “Jim Crow Era” • Period in which Southern African Americans were denied full rights of American citizenship