SIGRAV Graduate School in Contemporary Relativity and Gravitational Physics. Laura Ferrarese Rutgers University Lecture 6: The Future. Lecture Outline. A Recap of the Observational Status of SBH Research Open Questions: What Remains to be Done Building the Local Sample
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Relativity and Gravitational Physics
Lecture 6: The Future
Broad-line width V
& size scaling with
e, re *
[O III] line width
V * MBH
High-z AGNsEstimating SBH Masses
Self regulating SBH formation links the mass of SBHs to that of the dark matter halo in which they reside. Such models have a built in lower limit to the SBH mass that can be created (e.g. Silk & Rees 1998, Haehnelt, Natarajan & Rees 1998).
3. Can we obtain dynamical evidence for the existence of IBHs?
An increasing amount of evidence supports the existence of “intermediate mass black holes” (100 - 1000 M), which could be the seeds for nuclear SBHs (Ebisuzaki et al. 2001; Portegies Zwart & McMillan 2002; Miller & Hamilton 2002)
1. How small or how large can SBHs be?
2. What is the exact characterization
of the SBH-galaxy connections?
The persistence of the M-s relation in the face of mergers probes the cooling/heating feedback of the ISM (e.g. Kauffmann & Haehnelt 2000).
4. Do binary black holes exist?
The formation of binary black holes as a consequence of mergers can have dramatic consequences, from driving the morphology and dynamics of the host core (Milosavljevic & Merritt 2001), to destroying nuclear dark matter halo cusps (Merritt et al. 2002)What We Have Learned, and Open Questions
1.SBHs are fundamental constituents of galaxies: the local SBH mass density is equal to what is needed to explain the energetics of high redshift QSOs (Merritt & Ferrarese 2001; Ferrarese 2002; Yu & Tremaine 2002).
2. The existence of tight relations between SBHs masses and the large scale properties of their host galaxies suggests that the formation and evolution of SBHs and their hosts must go hand in hand. Understanding how SBHs form might help us to understand how galaxies form/evolve (or viceversa).
Systematics in the M relation (or any other SBH scaling relation!) have not been fully investigated:
Slope, zero point & scatter
< 106 M and >109 M regimes
Dependence on Hubble type
Dependence on galaxy environment
Reliability of SBH mass measurements
Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001,
Gebhardt et al. 2002
4.58 of the dark matter halo in which they reside. Such models have a built in lower limit to the SBH mass that can be created (e.g. Silk & Rees 1998, Haehnelt, Natarajan & Rees 1998). 0.52
(Tremaine et al. 2002)Resolving the Sphere of Influence
M33 is an ideal target:
Tightest limit from ground based data: MBH < 50,000 M
The MBH-s relation predicts 2,600 < MBH < 26,000 M
radius of influence < 0.025 arcsec
Only an upper limit can be set on the mass.
Merritt, Ferrarese & Joseph (2001)
Gebhardt et al. 2001;
Merritt, Ferrarese & Joseph 2001
NGC205 - HST/ACS/HRC - 29X29 arcsec of the dark matter halo in which they reside. Such models have a built in lower limit to the SBH mass that can be created (e.g. Silk & Rees 1998, Haehnelt, Natarajan & Rees 1998).1. Addressing the Faint End of the M-s Relation : NGC205
Andromeda, NGC 205 and M32
1.5 X 2 degrees
Ferrarese et al. 1994, AJ of the dark matter halo in which they reside. Such models have a built in lower limit to the SBH mass that can be created (e.g. Silk & Rees 1998, Haehnelt, Natarajan & Rees 1998).2. Building the Local Sample: What HST Cannot Do
NGC 147 (Han et al. 1997, AJ)
HST of the dark matter halo in which they reside. Such models have a built in lower limit to the SBH mass that can be created (e.g. Silk & Rees 1998, Haehnelt, Natarajan & Rees 1998).
Virgo2. Building the Local Sample
30m of the dark matter halo in which they reside. Such models have a built in lower limit to the SBH mass that can be created (e.g. Silk & Rees 1998, Haehnelt, Natarajan & Rees 1998).
HST2. Building the Local Sample
From Kaspi et al. (2000)
From Nelson & Whittle (1986)
Left: exactly this procedure applied to a sample of 107 radio quite QSO and Seyfert 1s (Boroson 2003). Notice the large scatter.
MBH=107 3108 M
MBH=109 1010 M
From Shields et al. 2002
3. The Redshift Evolution of the M Galaxies (?)BH-s Relation
70-cm Galaxies (?)
KRONOS (PI B. Peterson) is a proposed NASA/Midex mission which will allow uninterrupted UV/Optical/X-ray observations for as long as 14 days on target.
It will allow to distinguish between different simple transfer functions, something that no experiment to date has been able to do!
telescope4. The Structure of the Broad Line Region
Hubble Space Galaxies (?)
1017 cm4. The Structure of the BLR: KRONOS
Ground-based optical image
0 Galaxies (?)
0.3 - 0.6 Myr
Rotational Velocity6. Detecting Binary Black Holes
Separation between the SBHs: 0.18 pc (109 M SBHs)
Difference in Rotational Velocity:
95 km/s (109 M SBHs)
Difference in Velocity Dispersion:
136 km/s (109 M SBHs)
From Milosavljevic & Merritt 2001, ApJ
Thick Line: SBH Binary
Thin Line: Single SBH
Enlarge the sample; probe < 10 Galaxies (?)6 & > 109 M SBHs; test biases with type & environment
Needed to study systematics, distinguish between “bottom up” or “top down” models for SBH formation; constrain the role of feedback in SBH accretion during merging.
< 0.02 arcsec > 8m few tens of arcsec 5500-9500 10,000 Longslit
Constrain dynamical models for GC evolution; investigate the connection between GCs, nuclear SBHs and galactic bulge. Same data useful to measure GC distances, constrain ages.
Detecting SBHs in GCs
~ 0.1 arcsec HST few tens of arcsec U or B-band N/A High Res. Imaging
High Dynamic Range
Constrain dynamical models for galaxy mergers; determine the impact of SBH binaries in the morphological evolution of galaxies; constrain accretion mechanisms.
Resolving Binary SBHs
<0.01 arcsec >30m few tens of arcsec >8000 10,000 IFU
Constrain the redshift evolution of SBH scaling relations
Constrain SBHs formation and evolution.
Reverberation mapping, KRONOS.Summary
Project Spatial Resol. Aperture FOV Bandpass l/Dl Comments
Future Optical-Ultraviolet Astronomy from Space’, `
Peterson 2002, in ‘Hubble's Science Legacy: Future
Optical-Ultraviolet Astronomy from Space’, astroph/0208066