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  1. Employability Skills Session 4 Career matching – what career suits you?

  2. What jobs would suit you? • How do you decide? • Begin by asking one simple question ‘What sort of career will give me job satisfaction?’

  3. What job would suit you? • To ensure you find a job which interests and challenges you, start by doing the following: • Think about your major degree subject • Investigate careers related to your major degree subject • Use Prospects to get you started www.prospects.ac.ukclick on ‘careers advice’ then ‘options with your subject’ • Look at the destinations of graduates by clicking on the ‘What do graduates do?’ link • You might also find useful information by taking these links to ‘Jobs and work experience/Working abroad /Country profiles’ and selecting China. • Bear in mind though, that there are many jobs which do not require you to have studied any particular major subject. Many employers are more interested in the general skills you have gained.

  4. What job would suit you? • Consider your strengths and weaknesses • Refer back to session 2 entitled ‘Assessing yourself’ which helps you to increase your skills of self-awareness by completing a series of self-assessment exercises.

  5. What job would suit you? • Identify and prioritise your ‘career drivers’ • Spend some time identifying the main ‘needs’ you have that you want your career to satisfy. See how these influence your career decisions. • Dave Francis in his book Managing Your Own career (1994) suggests that we all are motivated strongly by one or two key career values which he calls career drivers. He argues we are all motivated by different career drivers such as wanting money, status, or being altruistic. • These personal values are so powerful that, if they are not met, the individual feels unfulfilled and frequently unhappy in their job. • ‘A career driver is an inner force which determines what you want and need from your working life’

  6. What job would suit you? Set yourself realistic goals • One of your career driversmay be ‘material rewards’ e.g. money. Think about how much you want to be paid – but remember the more highly rewarding careers can place the highest demands on you. • You may have to make some compromises – find a job which satisfies most of your requirements. • One of your key career drivers may be ‘search for meaning’ where you are employed in jobs for their own value. These jobs may not offer the most pay but give you the satisfaction of making a real difference to someone’s life. • Even as a graduate you may have to start your career at the bottom of the ladder but with effort and hard work you will eventually reach your goals.

  7. What job would suit you? Do your homework • The best way to find out about what jobs are like is to talk to people in them. • Think about who you know, family, friends . • What do they say about their jobs? • Use the internet and paper based information sources to help you get an overall picture of a job. See session 3 ‘Employability resources’ which refers you to detailed occupational resources. • Finally, the best way to find out about a job is to try it out – try to arrange some practical work experience. This will also help to enhance your CV/Resume (Jianli).

  8. What job would suit you? • Take into account your personal circumstances and values • Do you need to be located in a certain part of the country? • Do you require a certain level of income? • How important is work-life balance to you? • How much training are you prepared to undertake? The career you may be considering may require lengthy further training and taking further qualifications – are you prepared for this? • How do you feel about travelling away from home and working long hours?

  9. What job would suit you? • Take into account your personal circumstances and values • You are the best person to work out which career is right for you because of your own personal circumstances and values. • It is useful to talk to people who know you well – ask your family for their opinion too. • But remember ultimately it is YOUR decision and you have to make your own choice to find your future career.

  10. What job would suit you? • There are other factors you need to take into consideration when choosing your ideal career. • Firstly, think about the type of organisation you’d like to work for – in this session Word Exercise no.1 ’What organisation would suit me?’ will help you to do this • Secondly, use the next few slides to help you to form a picture of the differences between different sizes of organisations.

  11. What type of organisation? Small organisation? • Benefits • Early responsibility • Make an impact • Variety and challenge • Develop self-reliance • Increase awareness of the whole business • Risks • Lack of structured support/training • Less hierarchical career progression • Potential job insecurity • Low public image

  12. What type of organisation? Large organisation • Risks • Small role in a big organisation • Less influence and impact on the • organisation • Less immediate task variety • Potential to get stuck doing the same • job • More impersonal • Higher chances of being • underemployed (doing less work than • you are capable of doing) Benefits • Structured training • and development • Clearer career progression • Ready made support networks • Competitive salary • Potentially more job security • Higher public awareness and credibility

  13. Employment sectors Hospitality management Construction Transport/travel Retail/wholesale Communications Health Education/training IT/computers/telecommunications Environment Manufacturing Engineering Local/national government Utilities (Gonggong Shiye) Public service Media/marketing/Public Relations Sports/entertainment Financial Legal Voluntary/charity Pharmaceuticals/chemicals/ Food Consumer goods Social care Education Arts/culture Tourism/leisure Technological/scientific Agriculture/land management Can you identify one or two sectors you would like to work in?

  14. Employment sectors You need to look for the following: • Signs of growth – vacancy announcements, share prices, signs of expansion etc. • Find out the key organisations • Find out where the main opportunities are • Find out if you possess the required skills (look at sample job descriptions) • Find out if you possess the required experience

  15. What do all these people have in common? Thomas Edison Oprah Winfrey Richard Branson Bill Gates P.Diddy Walt Disney

  16. What do all these people have in common? They are all highly successful, internationally renowned entrepreneurs!

  17. What do all these people have in common? Bill Gates – co-founder of Microsoft with an estimated wealth of $50 billion dollars. Had the vision to predict the enormous importance of the personal computer Walt Disney – went from sketching a rabbit to creating the most recognisable brand and turning it into a multi-billion dollar empire. Oprah Winfrey – famous US chat Show host, founder of the Harpo inc. which employs 250 full-time staff in TV, film production, magazine publishing and online media. The first black woman to become a billionaire

  18. What do all these people have in common? Thomas Edison – invented something which had more impact on mankind than anything else – a system of centrally generating and distributing electric light, heat and power, ultimately founding the General Electric Corporation (GEC). Incredibly he didn’t speak until the age of four! Richard Branson Formed Virgin Atlantic Airways in 1984, launched Virgin Mobile in 1999, Virgin Blue inAustralia in 2000 In 1997, Branson took what many saw as being one of his riskier business exploits by entering into the railway business. Virgin Trains won the franchises for the former Intercity West Coast and Cross-Country sectors of British Rail. P.Diddy, born Sean John Coombs, also known as Puff Daddy record producer, CEO, clothing designer, actor and rapper. He is the 2nd richest hip-hop mogul with a net worth of $358 million

  19. China’s emerging entrepreneurs • ‘China’s remarkable economic growth has been achieved through the rapid emergence of a dynamic private sector’. • In the following report, published by Centrepiece, Spring 2008, Linda Yueh explores what we knowabout the new generation of self-employed entrepreneurs who have driven this transformation in China.. • http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/cp253.pdf

  20. Chinese entrepreneurs • Robin Li Baidu, born Yangquan, Shanxi, China • In the 11 years since founding Baidu in January 2000, Robin has turned the company into China’s largest search engine, with over 80% market share. Baidu also ranks as the second largest independent search engine in the world. In August 2005, Baidu was listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange, and in December 2007 became the first Chinese company to be included in the NASDAQ-100 Index. • As a pioneer and leader of China’s Internet industry, he has received honours including “CCTV Key Figure in China’s Economy,” “The Top 30 Figures in China’s 30 Years of Reform,” “China’s Most Imaginative Entrepreneur,” and many others. On several occasions, U.S.-based magazines such as BusinessWeek and Fortune Magazine have designated Robin’s as “Best Business Leader in the World” and “China’s Most Influential Business Leader.” Robin was also named by Time Magazine as one of the “World’s Most Influential People” in 2010

  21. Chinese entrepreneurs • Jerry Yang – co-founder Yahoo • Is Taiwanese, born in Taipei in 1968, moved to America at the age of 8. He created the Yahoo! navigational guide together with David Filo in 1994, and co-founded the Yahoo! Inc the following year. Yahoo! is one of the leading Internet brands, with the most traffic networks on the Internet. Jerry Yang was cited by BusinessWeek as one of “The 25 Most Influential Men on the Web.” Yang was also listed by Forbes as the 140th in the list of “The 400 Richest Americans” 2006.

  22. Are you suited to a Career in Entrepreneurship? • What is an entrepreneur? • In the UK currently 3% - around 4,500 graduates – start up a new business when graduating. Increasing numbers of graduates in China are showing an interest in setting up their own business • An entrepreneur is not simply someone who starts up businesses, they also: • Play an important role in all walks of life including social enterprises; • Create opportunities which produce benefits for the organisation. • Most people who start up new businesses are enterprising but not necessarily entrepreneurial

  23. What is a business? Business • An organisation trading to make profit for its owners • A sole trader, partnership, plc or limited liability company • Can employ any number of employees • Small and Medium Sized Enterprise (SME) Independent business with less than 250 employees (in the UK) • Freelance (employee) Has a series of jobs with one or more employers

  24. Are you suited to a Career in Entrepreneurship? • Entrepreneurs are more likely to be involved in high risk, fast growing, start up ventures/businesses. • Most small businesses are not high risk or fast-growing. • A good definition of an entrepreneur is: • ‘A person who is committed to identifying new opportunities and converting them to value’

  25. What is an entrepreneur? Someone who: • Sees opportunities when others don’t. • Knows how best to convert them into benefits. • The benefits may be financial, social or cultural. • Entrepreneurs play a role in all organisations, large or small not just in businesses.

  26. How do you know if you are an entrepreneur? • Although there is no reliable way of assessing if you possess suitable personality traits a university in the UK has devised a General Enterprising Tendency (GET) test which identified 5personality traits commonly associated with the enterprising person. However, individuals who score highly are ‘enterprising but not necessarily entrepreneurial’.

  27. How do you know if you are an entrepreneur? • The GET traits are: Need for achievement Need for autonomy Drive + determination Creative tendency Risk taking Try the GET test – Exercise 6 – ‘Are you suited to a career in entrepreneurship?’ in this session to see whether this might be a realistic option for you

  28. Entrepreneur personality traits Strong entrepreneurs have: • A track record of seeking new opportunities and ventures • An ability to innovate and take risks • See themselves as ‘entrepreneurs’ • A tendency to break rules to achieve their goals • A driven personality • A tendency to complete tasks and are less people oriented • Highly independent, not good team players • Have the philosophy to consistently ‘get things done

  29. What does it mean to be enterprising? • The following personal qualities form the basis for success in ANY organisation. Items with an asterisk (*) are particularly important to entrepreneurs Initiative Flexibility Creativity * Leadership Independence * Problem-solving Persuasiveness Calculated risk-taking * Need for achievement * Belief in and control of own destiny * Exceptionally hard working

  30. What is an ‘Entrepreneurial Career’? • It has much in common with a ‘career in management’ and is influenced by a variety of factors: • Aspirations, self-identity, disposition, aptitudes • Skills, knowledge, qualifications and experience • Availability of opportunities • Follows a wider range of work patterns

  31. What is an ‘Entrepreneurial Career’? • It involves initiating and exploiting new opportunities then moving onto the next one. • Often involves setting up new ventures then changing employment sectors several times. • Could be highly successful or head towards a series of disasters. • The main quality is the ability to bounce back and try something else.

  32. Biography of an Entrepreneur……. Educated at Scaitcliffe School until age of 13. Attended Stowe School until 15. Branson has dyslexia, resulting in his not having been a good student. By age of 15 started two ventures that eventually failed: - growing Christmas trees and another raising budgerigars. At 16, Branson quit school and moved to London, where he began his firstsuccessful business, Student magazine. Branson started his first record business selling cut-outs through a record mail order business in 1970. Trading under the name "Virgin" he sold records for considerably less than the so-called "High Street" outlets, especially the chain W. H. Smith. Branson eventually started a record shop in Oxford Street in London and, shortly after, launched the record label Virgin Records with Nik Powell. Branson formed Virgin Atlantic Airways in 1984, launched Virgin Mobile in 1999, Virgin Blue inAustralia in 2000, and later failed in a 2000 bid to handle the National Lottery. In 1997, Branson took what many saw as being one of his riskier business exploits by entering into the railway business. Virgin Trains won the franchises for the former Intercity West Coast and Cross-Country sectors of British Rail. In 1993, Branson received the honorary degree of Doctor of Technology from Loughborough University. And ….. he became SirRichard Branson when he was knighted by the Queen in 1999 for "services to entrepreneurship

  33. Richard Branson on what it takes to be an entrepreneur “I never get the accountants in before I start up a business. It's done on gut feeling, especially if I can see that they are taking the mickey out of the consumer.’’ “A business has to be involving, it has to be fun, and it has to exercise your creative instincts.’’

  34. Are you like Richard Branson? • http://www.davincimethod.com/entrepreneur-test/?idx=Richard%20Branson&gclid=CMvAlb2-lJICFQIP1AodFFPX_g • Take this light-hearted quiz and find out!

  35. And finally…….. Your careers ideas- sharpening the focus 10 top tips • 1.Keep reviewing your situation – if your current plan of action is not working use professional guidance staff to help you review where you are and plan your next steps. • 2. Send off for some sample job details to give you a clearer idea of what your chosen career (s) involve. How many of the ‘essential’ and ‘desirable’ elements can you match? • 3. Try some work experience/internships to increase your awareness of what careers involve. • 4. Keep up your motivation levels by setting yourself regular targets. Set yourself milestones for measuring your performance. Reward yourself from time to time, every time you reach one of your milestones!

  36. And finally…….. Your careers ideas - sharpening the focus 10 top tips • 5. If you feel you are not progressing create yourself some stepping stones. (short term targets) Don’t expect to find your future career in a day! Most people make several false starts before they reach their career goal. • 6.Use your instincts – which work environments and careers have you tried in the past? Which did you feel comfortable in? Why was this? Is it worth focusing on these now? • 7. Alternatively, it may be worth making new choicesto experience a wider range of opportunities and test yourself more fully. You may have had some negative experiences but you will always learn something new about yourself form these which will help you make more informed career decisions in the future.

  37. And finally…….. Your careers ideas- sharpening the focus 10 top tips • 8. If you are really struggling – be honest with yourself. Have you carried out enough research into yourself and your chosen careers?. Do you set yourself regular targets and monitor your progress? Are you gaining enough practical experience? • 9. Do you need to get more advice to help you? • 10. Remember, if you have a clear idea of what you want from a job it may be possible to find your future career through your current employer. You could look at graduate employment options and visit employment agencies in your city. You could look into re-shaping your current role. Can you take on additional responsibilities e.g. a special project or further training? Speak to your line manager; there may be more opportunities available than you think.