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Culminating Experience in Women’s Health Research Anna Kaatz UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health MPH Final Presentation November 11, 2009. Outline. Background Methods Results Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgments. Background. Personal:

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Culminating Experience in Women’s Health Research

Anna Kaatz

UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health

MPH Final Presentation

November 11, 2009

outline
Outline
  • Background
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
background
Background
  • Personal:
    • Teaching and Researching Women’s Health.
    • Research Question: Why are there gaps in women’s health research?
  • Field Experience:
    • Mentor: Dr. Molly Carnes, Director of The UW-Center for Women’s Health Research
  • Research Project:
    • Examination of NIH Peer Review for Gender Bias
study background a critical interconnected public health issue
Study BackgroundA Critical, Interconnected Public Health Issue
  • NIH Office for Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) & DHHS Office on Women’s Health Research (OWH):
    • The establishment and advancement of women in careers in biomedical research and academic medicine is linked to advancing women’s health research.
    • Female Scientists are more likely than males to study women’s health issues.

Carnes et al. (2007). Women’s Health and Women’s Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass

Ceiling? J.Women’s Health, 17(9),1454-5.

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Study BackgroundThe Problem:The Pipeline is “Leaky”Proportion of women in academic medicine, by educational stage and rank.

Association of American Medical Colleges (2005). Women in US Academic Medicine:

Statistics and Medical School Benchmarking,

http://www.aamc.org/members/wim/statistics/stats05/wimstats2005.pdf.

barriers to women s career advancement examining the evidence base
Barriers to Women’s Career Advancement: Examining the Evidence Base
  • There are enough women in the “pipeline” and women are equally committed as males to careers in academic medicine and research.
  • Inequalities related to systematic gender bias pose the greatest barrier to achieving gender equity.

Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP) (2007) Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of

Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academies Press

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Study Question:Is Gender Bias in NIH Grant Peer Review a Barrier for Women’s Career Advancement in Academic Medicine and Research?

Ley and Hamilton, 2008: Female MDs are less likely than males to receive initial, and renewal NIH R01 funding.

Johnson, 2008: NIH Peer-reviewer bias affected 25% of funding decisions.

Bornmann et al, 2007: Meta-analysis identified significant gender-bias in peer-review for scientific grants.

Hosek et al, 2005: Female PIs receive 37% less funding than males from NIH, receive only 13% of multi-million dollar awards, and are less likely to reapply within two years.

Carnes et al, 2005: Identified gender bias in selection criteria for the NIH Director Pioneer Award.

study methods
Study Methods
  • Social Science IRB: “Examination of Words and Descriptors in NIH Grant Reviews”
  • Collection of K, R, and T Grant Reviews for 2008-2009 Awards with at least one Revision
  • De-identification of Reviews
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Reviews for Gender Bias
    • Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC)
    • NVIVO
preliminary results
Preliminary Results
  • R Awards are Focus of Analysis
    • Total R Awards: 201
    • M: 144 F: 57
    • 28.4% of awards went to female PIs
    • 91% of total females did revisions (39)
      • A1: 54%, A2: 46%
    • 77% of total males did revisions (81)
      • A1: 60.5%, A2: 39.5%
  • More females than males submitted multiple revisions.
  • Male applications were approved more rapidly.
preliminary results1
Preliminary Results
  • Qualitative Observations:
      • For applicants with similar backgrounds and qualifications, females are subject to more lengthy and critical reviews than males.
    • Similar to a study by Trix & Psenka, 2003:
      • To describe female applicants reviewers use more “negative language,” “doubt raisers,” and more “language related to gender.”
    • Similar to a study by Schmader et al, 2007:
      • More Standout Adjectives are used to describe male applicants (e.g. outstanding, exceptional, excellent, unique, strong).
preliminary results2
Preliminary Results
  • Methods for Successful Grant Writing:
    • Addressing every concern and question with evidence base responses.
    • Using same language as reviewers.
    • Emphasizing public health relevance.
    • Emphasizing capacity for innovation based upon personal skills and training.
discussion
Discussion:
  • There is still a long way to go…
    • Finish Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Reviews.
    • Analysis of results.
    • Study results may contribute to many disciplines: grant writing, cognitive psychology, educational leadership, biomedical research, policy.
conclusion a field learning experience in research leadership and policy
Conclusion: A Field Learning Experience in Research, Leadership, and Policy
  • Research:
    • Using MPH training to study a public health problem
  • Leadership:
    • Directing and Training two Interns
    • Leading Research Meetings
  • Policy:
    • Participation in Working Group for Policy at NIH Office for Research on Women’s Health Regional Scientific Workshop
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Barb Duerst and all MPH faculty, staff and students.
  • Dr. Molly Carnes, Dr. Carol Isaac, Vicki Leatherberry, Majiedah Pasha, Sharon Topp, Erin Aagesen, Katie Muratore, and Kristin Cox from the UW-CWHR.
  • Dr. Nancy Worcester, Dr. Mariamne Whatley, Dr. Judy Houck, and Dr. CC Ford.
  • My family, Sara Ishado, and Megan Reading
references
References
  • Association of American Medical Colleges (2005). Women in US Academic Medicine: Statistics and Medical School Benchmarking, http://www.aamc.org/members/wim/statistics/stats05/wimstats2005.pdf.
  • Association of American Medical Colleges (2005). The changing representation of men and women in academic medicine. AAMC Analysis in Brief 5(2):1-2,http://www.aamc.org/data/aib/aibissues/aibvol5_no2.pdf.
  • Bornmann, L., Mutz, R., Daniel, H.D. (2007). Gender difference in grant review: a meta-analysis. J. Informetrics 1:226-238.
  • Carnes M, Geller S, Fine E, Sheridan J, Handelsman J. (2005) NIH Director's Pioneer Awards: could the selection process be biased against women? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Oct;14(8):684–91.
  • Carnes et al. (2007). Women’s Health and Women’s Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass Ceiling? J.Women’s Health, 17(9),1453-1462.
  • Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP) (2007) Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academies Press
  • Hosek, S., et al. (2005) Genderdifferences in major federal external grant programs. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
  • Johnson, V. E. 2008. Statistical analysis of the National Institutes of Health peer review system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:11076-11080.
  • Ley, T.J., and Hamilton, B.H. (2008). The Gender Gap in NIH Grant Applications. Science, 322:1472-1474.
  • Schmader, T., Whitehead, J., Wysocki, VH. (2007). A Linguistic Comparison of Letters of Recommendation for Male and Female Chemistry and Biochemistry Job Applicants. Sex Roles, 57: 509-514.
  • Trix, Frances and Carolyn Psenska. (2003). Exploring the Color of Glass: Letters of Recommendation for Male and Female Medical Faculty.” Discourse & Society, 4(2): 191-220.
  • Valian, Virginia. (1998). Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Viner, N., Powell, P., Green, R. (2004). Institutionalized biases in the award of research grants: a preliminary analysis revisiting the principle of accumulative advantage. J. Research Policy 33(3): 443-454.
  • Wessely, S. (1998). Peer review of grant applications: what do we know? Lancet 352:301-305
  • Wennerås C, Wold A. (1997). Nepotism and sexism in peer-review. Nature,87:341–343. doi: 10.1038/387341a0.