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Need for Government/Governmental Systems (C&G 2.5, C&G 4.1). Unit 1 Review. Categories for types of government. There are 4 major categories for major types of government. 1. “autocracy” means control by one person. One person is in charge.
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Categories for types of government There are 4 major categories for major types of government. 1. “autocracy” means control by one person. One person is in charge. 2. “oligarchy” means control by a group, just a few persons. Several are in charge. 3. “democracy” means control by many persons. Many are in charge. 4. “anarchy” means there is an Absence of government.
Autocracy 1. One person has the power rule by one. (a king/queen, a dictator) 2. The ruler determines how much power the citizens have examples: monarchy (inherited) dictatorship (rule by force with military) a.k.a-totalitarianism
Oligarchy 1. Several persons have the power 2. Rule by a group of persons or political party 3. The rulers determine how much power the citizens have examples: Military junta (rule by the military) A. Aristocracy (rule by the social elite) B. Theocracy (rule by the religious elite)
Democracy • Citizens have the power. • 2. Rule by the citizens. • 3. The citizens determine how much power the government has. • Examples: A. representative democracy or republic (rule by freely nominated and elected representatives) • B. Pure democracy (rule by all citizens)
Anarchy 1. Absence of government 2. Often results in violence and chaos 3. Citizens are not safe 4. Whoever is strongest has the power
2. Why were the Americans mad? A. Enforced mercantilism: Taking raw materials from the colonies and selling finished products to the colonies. (Meant the colonies were always in debt to Britain) B. the British enforced collection of the taxes – Sugar Tax, Stamp Tax, Tea Tax
C. The Quartering Act allowed British soldiers to live in colonists’ homes. D. The writs of assistance allowed the British to search colonists’ homes. E. The colonists had no representation in Parliament. They felt they had taxation without representation.
F. The British ignored Locke’s Enlightenment theories of Natural Rights (life, liberty, property) and a government that must preserve these Rights or lose consent of the governed and risk a revolt of the people. G. The British ignored the idea of a social contract - An agreement among people in a society with a government. Give up freedoms but gain protection.
H. The British government practiced salutary neglect. Salutary Neglect – England's policy of not interfering with its American colonies.
A. Colonists Boycotted. boycott- to refuse to buy. example: tea and stamps B. Public protests. C. Propaganda to motivate the colonists to revolt - “Give me liberty or give me death”
Revolutionary Ideas and Classical theories of govt 1. Magna Carta, 1215 Jury by trial by peers, no taxation w/o representation, due process 2. John Locke (1632 – 1704) Natural Rights - life, liberty, property Social Contract – people give up freedom for security/protection Consent of the Governed – The people give permission to the government. 3. Montesquieu (1689 – 1755) 3 branches with checks and balances.
English Bill of Rights (1689) Similar to the US Bill of Rights (jury trial, due process, no cruel punishment, right to petition and to bear arms, no taxation w/o representation)
Founding Fathers Other Points of Interest John Adams – 1st VP, 2nd President, promoted the AR and Strong Central Government Benjamin Franklin – Helped Draft D of I, delegate to the Constitutional Convention and signed the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton – Founder of the Federalist Party, Supported Strong Central Government, First Secretary of Treasury, Writer of The Federalist papers. John Jay – Leader of the Federalist Party, Wrote of 5 The Federalist Papers. Thomas Jefferson – principal author of the Declaration of Independence, First Secretary of State, 3rd President of the US, Supporter of States’ Rights. James Madison – Write of The Federalist papers, 4th President of the US, “Father of the Constitution”, George Washington – Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Armies, He presided over the convention that drafted the US Constitution, 1st President of the US,
Other Points of Interest Declaration of Independence The Declaration was ultimately a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain Contained Natural Rights, Consent of Governed Based on ideas from John Locke
4. How did the Enlightenment classical theory of government affect the founding documents(D of I, US Constitution, B of R)? Discussed and explained in PowerPoint already. John Locke Natural Rights Social Contract Consent of the Governed Montesquieu 3 branches and Checks and Balances
5. How did America’s national identity derive from the principles of the founding documents? Power of the people/consent of the governed/ popular sovereignty Government to Protect the people/social contract and Bill of Rights Democratic Ideals and rule of law
Articles of Confederation Characteristics of the Articles *A weak central government * 9 of 13 votes needed to pass a law * No military * No power to enforce laws * No power to tax * 13 of 13 to amend * Unicameral, one branch, weak, central government * States had the power * Could not regulate trade
6. How was power controlled? 3 Branches of Government Checks and Balances to keep one from overpowering the others. Bill of Rights protects citizens from Government. Federalism – Relationship between the Federal Government and State Governments (enumerated and implied powers vs reserved powers)
7. How did disagreements over power between Federalists and Anti-Federalists shape the US government?
Political Viewpoints Federalists • One group, who called themselves Federalists, favored ratification of the Constitution. • Federalists were typically wealthy merchants, planters, and lawyers. • They supported a strong central government that would be able to ensure a strong currency and protect property rights. Madison Hamilton Jay
Political Viewpoints Antifederalists • This group opposed the ratification of the Constitution and feared a strong central government. • Had 3 objections to the Constitution: • Constitutional Convention had been conspired under a “veil of mystery” and delegate had gone way beyond creating a new form of government. • Believed that a strong central government would destroy states’ rights. Wanted states to have the power. • Believed that the new system of government resembled a monarchy because of the concentration of power. Thomas Jefferson
8+9 Discussed already in PowerPoint Principles (Separation of Powers, Rule of Law, Checks and Balances, Limited Government, Consent of the Governed)
10. How has the US Constitution, a ‘living Constitution’ been interpreted and applied through time? Amendments allow our constitution to change with time. Example: 18+21 The Supreme Court has issued rulings according to how they have Interpreted the constitution which has changed over time. Examples: Mapp v Ohio and NJ v TLO Gideon v Wainwright Miranda v Arizona Plessy v Ferguson Brown v Board of Ed
Article I The role of the legislative branch. Article II Rules for how the President and the Vice President are elected and defines the responsibilities and powers of the executive branch. Article III The judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and lower courts. States that Supreme Court Judges can hold office for life, unless they are removed. Article IV Discusses the relationship between states and the federal government. Article V The Founding Fathers realized that over time, the government might need to make changes, called amendments, to the Constitution. Article VI States that the Constitution is the highest law of the land. Article VII It confirms the establishment of the Constitution.
Compromises at the Convention The Great Compromise At the convention, competing plans were suggested and a compromise was needed. The Virginia Plan, the “big states” ● A bicameral legislature, based on population. The New Jersey Plan, the “small states” ● A unicameral legislature, based on equality. The Great Compromise / Connecticut Plan ● A bicameral legislature, the upper house based on equality and the lower house based on population
Compromises at the Convention Three-Fifths Compromise ● A slave counts as 3/5s a person for tax and for representation purposes. (For the House of Representatives) The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise ● The slave trade will continue until 1808 ● Congress can regulate interstate and foreign trade. Electoral College ● President elected indirectly by electors from each state.