Weather and climate
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Weather and Climate - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Weather and Climate. Chapter 3. Factors Affecting Climate. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place. Weather conditions in a geographic region over a long time are called climate. Factors. The Sun heats the Earth unevenly.

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Factors affecting climate
Factors Affecting Climate

  • Weatheris the condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place.

  • Weather conditions in a geographic region over a long time are called climate.


  • The Sun heats the Earth unevenly.

  • The tilt of Earth as it revolves around the Sun is very important.

  • It determines which hemisphere receives the Sun’s most direct rays at a given time of year.

  • This process causes the changing seasons.

What happens to the sun s energy when it reaches earth
What happens to the Sun’s energy when it reaches Earth?

  • ½ is reflected back into space or absorbed by the atmosphere

  • Earth’s surface absorbs the other ½

  • Once absorbed, solar energy is converted into heat.

  • The measurement of heat is called temperature.

Global wind belts
Global Wind Belts

  • Some areas of the world have winds that blow from the same direction most of the time. These winds are called prevailing winds.

  • Doldrums- area with no prevailing winds.

  • Front occurs when two air masses of different temperatures or moisture levels meet.

Weather factors
Weather Factors

  • evaporation- the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.

  • humidity- the amount of water vapor in the air.

  • condensation- is the process by which water vapor changes from a gas into liquid droplets.

Mountain effects
Mountain Effects

  • Orographic effect- occurs when moist air pushes against a mountain. The barrier forces the air to rise. The rising air cools and condenses, forming clouds and causing precipitation.

Rain shadow
Rain Shadow

  • The side of the mountain facing the wind receives a great deal of moisture. This side is known as the windward side.

  • The side of the mountain facing away from the wind is the leeward side. As the air moves down the leeward side, it warms and dries.

  • This drier area is called a rain shadow. Deserts are often located in rain shadows.


  • Hurricanes are the most powerful and destructive tropical cyclones. They begin over warm tropical areas.

  • Hurricanes are called typhoons in the western pacific can create dangerous high waves.


  • Tropical Humid- is found in areas close to the equator.

  • Tropical wet and dry- just to the north and south of the tropical humid climate is the tropical wet and dry climate. It is sometimes called the tropical savanna climate.

  • Arid- most arid, or desert, climate regions are centered at about 30 degrees north and south of the equator.


  • Semiarid- is a transition zone between the arid climate and the more humid climates.

  • Mediterranean- exists in two areas….one is along coastal areas of southern Europe. The other is along west coast of continents with cool ocean currents.

  • Humid Subtropical- is found on the eastern side of continents where there are warm ocean currents.


  • Marine West Coast- heavily influenced by oceans, is generally found on the west coasts of continents in the upper middle latitudes.

  • Humid Continental- found in the interiors and east coasts of upper-middle latitude continents.

  • Subarctic- located generally about 50’ nort latitude.


  • Tundra- Coastal areas in high latitudes have a tundra climate. They also have long winters.

  • Ice Cap- found in earth’s polar regions, always covered by huge flat masses of ice and snow.

  • Highland- can have varying climates b/c temperatures change with elevation.