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Chapter 22: The Civil War

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Chapter 22: The Civil War. South: voluntarily joined, could voluntarily leave; defend Southern Independence North: South were traitors, needed to preserve the union Southern States: SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX, VA, AK, TN, NC

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22 1 introduction
South: voluntarily joined, could voluntarily leave; defend Southern Independence
  • North: South were traitors, needed to preserve the union
  • Southern States: SC, MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX, VA, AK, TN, NC
  • Northern States: CA, CT, IL, IN, IA, KS, ME, MA, MI, MN, NV, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PN, RI, VT, WI, DE, MD, MO, KT, WV
22.1 Introduction
22 2 north vs south
Abraham Lincoln: Union
    • Protect the Union, the country had “matured and continued”
  • Jefferson Davis: Confederacy
    • States rights, “asserted a right which the Dec of Ind defined as unalienable”
22.2 North vs. South
the north
North’s Strengths
    • 22 million population
    • Technological advantages (factories, resources)
    • Banks
    • More farms (food)
    • Iron, coal, copper, gold
    • Controlled seas
    • Railroad for supplying
    • Lincoln
  • North’s Weaknesses
    • Military Leadership
The North
the south
South’s Strengths
    • Military Leadership (Lee)
    • Size of south made conquering difficult
    • Defend and protect
  • South’s Weaknesses
    • Could be divided by Mississippi River
    • Economic and transportation disadvantages
      • Few factories
      • Railroads
The South
22 3 bull run
Anaconda Plan
    • Surround South and cut off trade
    • Divide Confederacy in half
    • Capture Richmond
  • Bull Run
    • Rose Greenhow supplied information on attack
    • Stonewall Jackson held firm with Union assault
    • Huge victory for South, shock for north
  • Women and the war
    • Spies
    • Ran farms and businesses
    • Nurses, teachers, government workers
    • Red Cross
22.3 Bull Run
22 4 antietam a bloody affair
The Anaconda Plan
    • North blockades southern ports; Great Britain refuses to push through, hurts Southern economy
    • Admiral Farragut leads 46 ships down Mississippi, NOLA falls without a shot
    • General Grant leads forces through KT and TN; “Unconditional Surrender”
22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair
22 4 antietam a bloody affair1
The Battle of Antietam
    • Lee invades MD, hoping to change allegiance and bring European powers into war
    • McClellan hammers Lee’s troops for a day, Lee retreats
    • Between the two forces almost 5,000 were dead and over 20,000 wounded/missing
22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair
22 4 antietam a bloody affair2
The New Realities of War
    • Improved weapons; rifles and artillery
    • Medicine not advance; no understanding of bacteria
    • Disease in war camps
22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair
22 5 gettysburg a turning point
The Emancipation Proclamation
    • Lincoln made goal of Civil War abolition
    • January 1st, 1863 declared slaves free
    • Confederate states ignored, states in Union with slaves also ignored
22.5: Gettysburg: A Turning Point
22 5 gettysburg a turning point1
The Battle of Gettysburg
    • Lee invades the North
    • General Meade meets Lee in Pennsylvania, 3 day battle
    • George Pickett charges to attempt to break Union lines, fails
    • Lee withdraws and fights defensive the rest of the war, 40,000 dead/wounded on both sides
22.5: Gettysburg: A Turning Point
22 5 gettysburg a turning point2
Opposition on Union Home Front
    • Tired of long war, some looking for peace
    • Copperheads: Democrats more interested in restoring peace than saving Union
    • Lincoln has to keep order in Maryland
  • The Gettysburg Address
    • “The Great Civil War” “Conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal”
    • Honor the men who died
    • Everyone must remain devoted to the cause of the Civil War
22.5: Gettysburg: A Turning Point
22 6 vicksburg a besieged city
Advances
    • Railroad
    • Telegraph
    • Photographs
    • Iron-plated ships
22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City
22 6 vicksburg a besieged city1
Merrimac and Monitor
    • Confederacy put iron plates on wooden ship with powerful ram called the Merrimac (renamed Virginia)
    • Merrimac attacks wooden ships in the Chesapeake, almost destroys blockade
    • Union build the Monitor and the two meet and attack
    • Neither is destroyed; ends wooden ships and changes the navy
22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City
22 6 vicksburg a besieged city2
Control of the Mississippi
    • Although Union controlled, they could not transport soldiers/supplies safely because of Vicksburg
  • Siege of Vicksburg
    • Cannons on top of Vicksburg hill could attack ships going down river
    • For six weeks Union bombards Vicksburg by land and sea
    • Surrenders July 4th, 1863
22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City
22 6 vicksburg a besieged city3
Problems on the Confederate Home Front
    • Blockade=no imported goods
    • Food scarce, Union often destroyed farmland
    • Morale slowing failing
22.6: Vicksburg: A Besieged City
22 7 fort wagner african americans and the war
54thMassachusetts
    • First all black regiment, commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw
    • Paid less, refused to accept money until pay was equal
    • Fort Wagner, paved way for African Americans to be used in battle
22.7 Fort Wagner: African-Americans and the War
22 8 appomattox total war brings an end
Ulysses S. Grant becomes commander of Union Forces in March of 1864
  • Grant Invades Virginia
    • Grant and Lee meet at the Wilderness, Cold Harbor and Petersburg
      • Grant suffers huge losses but can reinforce, Lee cannot
    • Total War: war on enemy’s ability to fight, massive damage to resources
    • Sherman invades South; captures Atlanta and burns it
22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End
22 8 appomattox total war brings an end1
The Reelection of Lincoln
    • Northern Democrats nominate George McClellan
      • Immediate end to war
    • Sheridan destroys Shenandoah and Sherman capturing Atlanta helps Lincoln
  • Sherman’s March through Georgia
    • Marches through Georgia to Savannah
      • Destroy the last untouched supply base in South
    • Destroys everything useful in 60-mile-wide path
22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End
22 8 appomattox total war brings an end2
The War Ends
    • Grant breaks through Petersburg and captures Richmond
    • April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House
      • Grant generous with terms
  • Touched by Fire
    • Slavery and secession had no place in new nation
    • “The United States are” became “the United States is”
    • 620,000 dead from both sides; billions spent on war
    • States rights and status of African Americans still an issue
22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End
post war
Lincoln assassinated April 14th, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth
    • Andrew Johnson becomes president
  • No Confederate soldiers punished
  • South must create governments loyal to Union
  • Begin Reconstruction Era
Post War
chapter questions
How was the Northern economy helped by the war?
  • What was the North’s tactic to win the war?
  • What was the South’s tactic to win the war?
  • What was the North’s goal in the war?
  • Why did the North win the war?
Chapter Questions
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