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  1. DRILL Problem: In your group of 3, estimate the volume of water, in liters, of the world’s oceans. You must list: 1) all assumptions 2) the logic of your thinking 3) conversions Work should be neat and easily followed. Calculators are not allowed. You may only use the picture to the right and any prior knowledge You have 5 minutes.

  2. Parameters • Width of United States: 3,000 miles = 4,800 km • Diameter of Earth: 8,000 miles = 12,800 km • Earth Surface Coverage: 71% • Average Depth of Ocean: 12,500 feet = 2.4 mls = 3.84 km • 1 ft3 = 7.5 gallons • 1 gal = 3.8 liters Answer: 1.35 x 1021 Liters

  3. Unit 1: What is Engineering? • Objectives • Introduce students to course. • Define engineering and a few of the differences between engineering and science. • Explore the various fields of engineering. • Identify the need and opportunities for students of STEM in the U.S. • Review Algebra, Geometry, and Trig required for this course. • Learn dimensional reasoning and the power-law expression. • Experimenting, lab reporting, data analysis. • Presentation methods.

  4. Course Syllabus Most things covered in class will show up on a test/quiz. Take notes and study. 5 minutes a night helps a lot more than you’d expect. Remember – this course is designed to prepare you to do well in college, regardless of your major. Unless otherwise specified, it’s okay to work with your partner on drills, classwork, and homework. Develop your academic integrity. Keep talk focused. You need permission and a hall pass to leave class.

  5. What is Engineering?

  6. What is Engineering? Application of: Math - Science - Technical - Principles to Create tangible, practical solutions Problem Solving Theory in Practice Manufacturing Knowledge in Action Manifesting Ideas Designing Solutions

  7. Science vs. Engineering • Science: • Systematically obtaining knowledge by observation and experience • Use the Scientific Method • Empirical / Objective • Engineering: • Application of math and science by which matter and energy are made useful to people • Designing and implementing solutions that fulfill an objective, need, or desire – based on knowledge • Subjective solutions based on objective knowledge

  8. Science vs. Engineering “Engineering. . .to define rudely but not inaptly is the art of doing that well with one dollar, which any bungler can do with two after a fashion.” – Arthur Mellen Wellington, The Economic Theory of Railway Location (1911)

  9. What is Engineering? Dr. Oct – scientist or engineer? NASA – scientists or engineers? STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, Math

  10. Fields of Science • Natural Science: • When we refer to “science,” we mean “natural science” • Science = Natural science, social science, formal science, applied science. • Physical Science: Source:

  11. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Aerospace • Bioengineering • Chemical • Civil • Computer Engineering • Computer Science • Electrical • Electronic • Material • Mechanical • Nuclear • Process Source:

  12. Fields of Engineering • Designing a Car – which field of engineering comes to mind? • Mostly Mechanical • What’s actually involved: • chemistry • thermodynamics • heat transfer • fluid dynamics • electronic controls • dynamics & vibrations • materials science • mechanical design Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  13. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Aerospace - This field of engineering deals with design, production and operation of various aircrafts, spacecrafts, missiles and other airborne technologies. This field is an expansion of another branch of engineering termed as the Aeronautical engineering, which deals exclusively with aircrafts. Source:

  14. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Bioengineering – the application of engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of biology and medicine. Biological engineering applies principles to the full spectrum of living systems, including molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, protein chemistry, cytology, immunology, neurobiology and neuroscience. Source:

  15. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Chemical – largely involves the design, improvement and maintenance of processes involving chemical or biological transformations for large-scale manufacture. Chemical engineers ensure the processes are operated safely, sustainably and economically. Source:

  16. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Civil– deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. • Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering. • It includes environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Source:

  17. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Computer Engineering – electronic engineering, software design and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. • Computer Science – is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation, and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems. Source:

  18. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Electrical– considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control. Deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. • Electronic – deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits. • Electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to transmit information. Source:

  19. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Material – Deals with the fundamental properties and characteristics of materials. Investigates and utilizes the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry. It includes the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Source:

  20. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Mechanical – was developed from the application of principles from physics and materials science. It involves the analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of various mechanical (or moving) systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines. ME’s design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, nanorobotics, medical devices and more. Source:

  21. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Nuclear – the application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. It includes, but is not limited to, the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components— specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. Source:

  22. Fields of Engineering • Major Fields: • Process Engineering – focuses on the design, operation and maintenance of chemical and other process manufacturing activities. Process engineering is often a synonym for chemical engineering but process engineers are found in a vast range of industries, such as the petrochemical, mineral processing, material, information technology, food and pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Process engineering also involves developing new processes, project engineering and troubleshooting. Source:

  23. engineering is………. Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  24. engineering is.……art Thames river barrier: “A magnificent work of engineering where architectural design played a major role for this magnificent structure to be a pleasant if not wondrous work of art” Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  25. what is engineering? • engineering is.……art Sydney Opera House (constructed between 1959 – 1973) Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  26. engineering is.……art what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  27. engineering is.……art what is engineering? Pont-du-Gard: Aqueduct built by Romans in 1st century Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  28. engineering is.……problem solving what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  29. engineering is.……problem solving what is engineering? Static/dynamic operating conditions Pressure effects Flow control Design of pressure valves Design of well array Lee et al. Lab on a Chip, 2009, 9, 1681 Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  30. engineering is.……approximation the mathematics of engineering systems are often too complicated to solve analytically what is engineering? “Engineering problems are under-defined, there are many solutions, good, bad and indifferent. The art is to arrive at a good solution. This is a creative activity involving imagination, intuition, and deliberate choice.”--Ove Arup Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  31. engineering is.……modeling and simulation often the only efficient means to confirm that an idea or design will work is to experiment with a scale model or computer simulation what is engineering? Composite model of X33 RLV being tested in a Mach20 tunnel at NASA Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  32. engineering is.……modeling and simulation “What shape would soap bubbles in a continuous array of soap bubbles be?” what is engineering? 22,000 steel members (90kms) 12,000 nodes The National Aquatics Center, or the "Water Cube," fully represents the concept of "Green Olympics," in terms of architecture, outside layer engineering, environmental protection in the areas of material, energy and water resources as well as the indoor environmental quality, according to a BOCOG official. Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  33. engineering is.……measurement and estimation river flow, noise in a communications system, scatter in a laser beam, earthquake characteristics – all require measurement what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  34. engineering is.……communication Making presentations, producing technical manuals, coordinating teams for large scale projects are all fundamental to engineering practice what is engineering? “They may be rocket scientists but……$125 million communication error” Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  35. engineering is.……politics the best functional solution is not necessarily the best practical solution what is engineering? 3 mile island Alaskan pipeline Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  36. engineering is.……finance Design, construction, operation, and maintenance costs determine the viability of a project what is engineering? The Big Dig, Boston: $14.2 billion The Channel tunnel: $21 billion ($1 billion = 666 Eiffel towers) Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  37. engineering is.……invention/design/innovation new devices, materials, and processes are developed by engineers to meet needs that existing technologies do not address. what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  38. engineering is.……invention/design/innovation New devices, materials, and processes are developed by engineers to meet needs that existing technologies do not address. what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  39. engineering is.……ethics, safety & public service what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  40. engineering is.……new materials e.g. nanocomposites = polymer + nanomaterial what is engineering? carbon nanotube – strongest material known CBC News Online | Updated October 2006 “For the space elevator, the carbon nanotubes need to be many metres long and woven together in a polymer to make a super-strong cable.” CBC News Online | Updated October 2006 Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  41. engineering is.……new materials what is engineering? Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  42. engineering is.……small as well as big Semiconductor quantum dots (particles with diameters from 1-10 nm) Single-walled carbon nanotube switches qdot synthesis CBC News Online | Updated October 2006 Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  43. engineering is.……small as well as big C. nanomedicine CBC News Online | Updated October 2006 Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  44. engineering is.……haptics and robotic surgery CBC News Online | Updated October 2006 Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  45. So what do engineers do? • Engineers solve problems using new ways to combine and use existing technologies. • Engineers develop • reliable, safe, cost-effective, aesthetic, useful products. • new devices, materials, or processes to meet the needs that existing technology does not address. Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  46. Expose yourself to engineering Original poster created to promote art in Portland, OR. (Man shown became mayor of Portland.) Engineering Innovation | Introduction

  47. Famous Engineering Students Mr. Bean Alfred Hitchcock Bill Nye Montel Williams President Hoover The Woz Lee Iacocca President Carter 20% of CEO’s of top US companies have engineering degrees.

  48. How does engineering affect your lives?

  49. car pens seat belt milk computers roads buildings toothpaste traffic lights clothing cereal hair products engine desks & chairs alarm clock projectors

  50. car pens seat belt milk computers roads buildings toothpaste traffic lights clothing cereal hair products engine desks & chairs alarm clock projectors