Midterm review AP World History Ms. Heath
The Test • 80 Multiple Choice Questions • 20% Period 1 (14 questions) • 20% Period 2 • 20% Period 3 • 40% Period 4 (38 questions) • 20 Geography questions • 1 Comparative Essay
Period 1 Technological and Environmental Transformations to c. 600 B.C.E.
Vocabulary (for the Midterm) • Neolithic revolution • Sedentary • Domestication • Pastoral • Social hierarchy • Specialization • Social stratification
Period 1 Overview of topics
Topic of Period 1 • Paleolithic Age • Neolithic Age • Neolithic revolution • River Valley Civilization
Paleolithic Age • Foraging (hunter and gathering) • Men hunting • Women gathering
Neolithic Age • Neolithic Revolution • Development of agriculture • Development • Gradual process: happened in different areas independently
Neolithic Age cont. • Characteristic • Required more work than foraging • Population growth • Permanent settlements (increase of diseases) • Domestication of plants and animals • Effects • Specialization of labor • Increase of population • Trade begins • Social Stratification • Development of Writing
River Valley Civilization • River Valley civilizations • Tigris and Euphrates River • Mesopotamia (Sumerians) –earliest civilization • Characteristics- • Writing Cuneiform • Ziggurats- building for worship (pyramid like) • Patriarchal society • Indus River (unpredictable flooding) • Harappan • Characteristics- • Unable to read writing • Laid cities in a precise grid like formation • Decline unknown
River Valley civilizations cont • Huang He River • The Shang & Zhou dynasties • Characteristics • Isolated from the others • Oracle bones • Social stratification • Women subordinate to men • Zhou-mandate of heaven • Nile River • Egypt • Characteristics • Irrigation projects to water fields • Pharaoh- king of Egypt Social stratification • Writing –hieroglyphics • Build pyramids
Other items to know • Relationship between writing and civilization • Allowed for record keeping • Organized governments
Review Questions! • The Neolithic Age • Saw the beginnings of urbanization • Saw the process of agriculture carried out without the use of metal tools • Produced societies without class divisions • Saw a decline in global populations • Witnessed the end of nomadic societies
Review Questions • The development of agriculture caused important changes in all of the following EXCEPT • population size and life expectancy. • male-female relations. • the development of complex social patterns. • the stability of human settlements. • the tendency to believe in many gods.
Review Question 3. The Neolithic revolution occurred first in • India. • the Middle East. • China. • Egypt. • Central America.
Review Question • The Indus River valley civilization • Relied heavily on communal planning • Is best studied through its written records • Was isolated from other river valley civilizations because of surrounding mountains • Declined after the arrival of Aryan invaders • Shared similar flood control concerns with the Egyptians
Answer sheet • E • E • B • A
Vocabulary • Reincarnation • Missionary • Cultural diffusion • Patriarchy • Democracy • Monsoon • Social Hierarchy • Stratification
Topic in Period 2 • Classical Civilizations • Origins of World Religions • Trade and interactions
Classical Civilization • Classical China • The Zhou • Mandate of Heaven • Centralized the government • The Qin • Came to power after the Era of Warring states • Build the Great Wall • Encouraged the manufacturing of Silk • The Han • Government bureaucracy grew stronger • Traded along the silk road • Expanded territory - recruited the local elite • Classical India • Monsoon controlled agriculture • Mauryan • Asoka • Gupta • Society: patriarchal • Downfall: invasions
Classical Civilization cont. • Classical Greece • Government: City-state • Classical Rome • Fall: too large for government to control and invasions • Characteristics • Republic • Empire: paxromana • Conquering other: recruit local elites • Persia • Locations: in Anatolia and the fertile crescents • Tolerance toward the customs of conquered people • Americas • Olmacs and Mayan • No interaction with the western hemisphere • Hellenistic Culture • Alexander the Great • Regions brought together by Alexander the Great: Middle East, Mediterranean and south Asia
Religions • Judaism • Hinduism • Belief system in India • No founder • Vedas- religious scriptures • Reincarnation • Trying to reach mosha • Caste system • Buddhism • Formed from Hinduism (also founded in India) • Does not believe in the caste system • Confucianism • Found by confusion during the period of warring states in china • Filial piety: patriarchal family -> respect for one’s elders and ancestors • Daoism • Also developed during the Era of warring states • Christianity • Also “people of the book” • Believe that Jesus Christ is the massiah
Trade and interactions • Silk Road • Connected the Mediterranean with east Asia • Indian Ocean trade • The maritime trade route • Trans-Saharan • Connecting West Africa with North Africa
Review Questions • The Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou in that • it lasted longer. • it was more centralized. • it was defeated by invading Huns. • it practiced Confucianism. • it eventually declined and fell.
Review Questions • The Persians • Were noted for their harsh treatment towards conquered people • Continued the traditions of ancient Mesopotamia • Introduced a new religion similar to the structure of Hinduism • Failed to establish a unified empire • Focused on their commercial activity on trade with china
Review Question • The Hellenistic empire of Alexander • Continued the competition with Persia begun under the Greek poleis • Was successful in curbing foreign influence upon Greece • Produced theories that accurately explained the nature of the universe • Blended Mediterranean and the Middle Eastern culture • Strengthened its hold upon the Mediterranean world after Alexander’s death
Review Questions • Both Hinduism and Buddhism • Supported the caste system • Revered women • Became increasing popular in India • All of the above • None of the above
Review Questions • The declining years of Han China and the Roman Empire shared all of the following EXCEPT • A decline in morality • Assimilation of invading peoples into imperial culture • Unequal land distribution • Decline in trade
Review Questions • Indian Ocean trade • Flourished in spite of constant interferences from nomadic tribe • Saw mariners utilize the geographic forces of the Indian Ocean • Declined with the fall of classical empires • Failed to establish connections with land routes • Concentrated on trade among neighboring people rather than long-distance trade
Answers • B • B • D • E • C • B
Vocabulary • Mosque • Indigenous • Interregional • Feudalism • Serfs • Bureaucracy
Overview • Rise and Spread of Islam • Expansion of China • Changes in European Institution • Trade • Americas
Rise and Spread of Islam • Rise • Origins: Muhammad • Split between the sunni and shia • Spread • Through trade and military conquest • Umayyad Caliphate • Abbasid Caliphate • Bagdad- downfall when city captured by the Mongols
Expansion of China • Tang Dynasty • Expanded the empire • Expanded the bureaucracy • Scholar-gently • Restricted the Buddhist monasteries • Song Dynasty • Civil service exams emphasized in gain government posts • Bureaucracy expanded • Mongol invasion • Restricted Chinese • Chinese no longer able to participate in their government
Changes in European Institution • The Middle Ages • Battle of Tours-prevents the Muslims from moving into Europe (Iberian Continent becomes Islamic) • Feudalism- political, economic and social system • Serfs- bound to the land but were not slaves (can’t be bought or sold) • Plague • Disease that killed the majority of the European populations • Effects: More jobs for peasant and craftspeople who were in scarce supply • Crusades • Christian campaigns trying to take back the holy land from the Muslims • Opened Europe up to new contacts and ideas • Byzantine Empire • Acted as the trading center between Asia and Western Europe • Interacts with the Slavs • Slavic Homeland • North of the byzantine Empire • Trades raw materials • Large homeland • Convert to Eastern orthodox
Trade • Bantu Migrations • Exchange of ideas, technology and language in sub-Saharan Africa through the migration of the Bantu speaking peoples. • Increase of trade • Trade along the Swahili coast (connected to the red sea, Indian Ocean and Arabian sea) • Growth of cities by the increase of trade • Mongol Empire control lands in which the silk road pasted through and makes the silk road secure for travelers
Americas • Incas • Located along the Western coast line of South America • Expanded through military conquest • Aztecs • Located in central Mexico • Inherent customs from previous civilizations • Expanded through military conquest • Change their environment for their needs
Review Questions • What was the most important "stepchild" of the Byzantine civilization? • A) the Middle East • B) Russia • C) Italy • D) Poland • E) Greece
Review Questions • Which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval West is NOT true? • A) They were slaves. • B) They received protection and the administration of justice from their landlords. • C) They were obligated to turn over part of their goods to remain on the land. • D) They retained essential ownership of their houses. • E) They had heavy obligations to their lords.
Review Questions • Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American civilizations during the post-classic period? • A) diverse civilizations • B) elaborate cultural systems • C) monotheism • D) highly developed agriculture • E) large cities based on elaborate political and economic organization
Review Questions • The bubonic plague changed the economic relationship between the upper and lower classes of Europe. This occurred because • A. Jobs were plentiful and peasants and craftspeople were in scarce supply • B. There were fewer jobs because of the population decline • C. Nobles paid less because they needed less • D. Nobles raised wages because the plague was a warning sign from god.
Review Questions • Of those listed below, which civilization existed in the most complete state of isolation in the period 600-1450? • A. Ming China • B. Delhi Sultanate • C. Aztec Empire • D. Carolingian France • E. KievanRus
Answers • B • A • A • A