Ind. Rev. in England (18th C.) • Industrial rev. triggered by changes in agriculture • Consolidation: wealthy landowners bought up small farmers’ land to make large estates • Enclosures: small sections of larger fields used to experiment, develop new techniques • Enclosure developments • Seed drill (Jethro Tull) • Idea of crop rotation • Selective breeding of cattle
Agricultural output skyrocketed, supporting population explosion in 18th-19th C. England’s population in 1750 = 5.7 million England’s population in 1850 = 16.6 million As farms became more efficient (& big business), fewer farm workers needed People moved to the cities, providing ready labor force for new industries springing up Results of Agricultural Advances, in England
Roots of Industrialization • What is industrialization? • Process of developing machine production of goods • Industrialization roots were in England • Why England? • Ample “Factors of Production” • Land, labor & capital • These are required to produce anything • Presence of entrepreneurs
English Roots of Industrialization • Why England? • Expanding economy • Many private banks • Sophisticated methods of lending and financing • Form of government • 100+ years of liberty, freedom in a const. monarchy • Laissez faire (“hands off”) approach to business, by government • Climate of progress • England a dynamic, open society vs. rest of Europe / Russia
Industrial Advancements • Textile industry first to industrialize (machines replaced muscle power) • Flying shuttle (1733) • Spinning jenny (1764) • Steam engine (1765) • Spinning mule (1779) • Power loom (1787) • Cotton Gin (1793) • New methods • Old technique: piece work • Factory: a place where bulky, expensive machinery – and workers – were brought together SJ: process thread Weavers wove faster Cotton Gin Steam engine
Transportation Advancements Erie Canal: 363 miles long! • On water • Steam engine used to propel boats (Steam ship & paddle wheel boat) • Man made canals connected regions otherwise not fed with rivers • Why was river / canal trade better than overland trade?
Transportation Advancements • On Land • Macadam road • Large rocks on top of smoothed gravel • Easier travel, better drainage • Allowed travel during rainy seasons • Steam engine led to railroads • First RR engine = 1804 • First RR line (1821) transported coal to port city • Liverpool to Manchester line (1830): 24 MPH train!
Transportation Developments • Railroads affected virtually every other industry • Spurred economic growth (cheap way to transport goods) • Created tens of thousands of jobs • Coal mining • Iron smelting • Shipping • Boosted agriculture (get crops to market quicker = higher profits) • Made migration to cities easier • Killed canal industry
Industrial Rev. on Continent • Belgium (ca. 1800) • First country to adopt industrial processes from UK • Already had canals, raw materials (textile industry) • Employed skilled British workers • Built machinery, steam engines, railroads on English model
Industrial Rev. on Continent • Germany, ca. 1835 • Imported British ideas, engineers & equipment • German children were sent to UK schools, to learn about industrialization • Germany’s first RRs were built connecting raw materials to manufacturing centers • But divisions of German Confederation slowed industrialization
Industrial Rev. on Continent • Regional spread of industrialization to rest of Europe • Parts of Spain • Parts of Italy • Parts of Russia • Generally into cities near rivers (why?) • France industrialized only after 1830 (what slowed it down?) • Government sponsored dev. of RR after 1850 • How was that different than UK?
Impact of Industrialization • Global inequality • Growing gap between industrialized, non-industrialized nations • Outside of Europe / America, no industrialization, anywhere
Impact of Industrialization • Economic & Social Inequality • Owners of factories got rich • Workers had hard, dangerous life • Imperialism • Result of industrialization • Need for raw materials • Where to get them from? • Need for vast markets to sell finished (manufactured) goods • Where to sell them? • Thus, industrialized nations took lands of non-industrialized countries for raw materials & sold their people manufactured goods • Result? Even more power to industrialized nations
Impact of Industrialization • Economic power was concentrated in the hands of parts of Europe and America • Asian & African economies, based on agriculture and small work shops, were no match for industrialized Europe