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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. From DNA to RNA to Proteins. Genes. Sections of DNA that controls making of physical traits/proteins. Types of RNA. Messenger (mRNA)-carries protein making instructions from DNA. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- Part of the ribosome -Makes proteins .

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protein synthesis

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

From DNA to RNA to Proteins

genes
Genes
  • Sections of DNA that controls making of physical traits/proteins
types of rna
Types of RNA
  • Messenger(mRNA)-carries protein making instructions from DNA.
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- Part of the ribosome-Makes proteins.
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)- transfers amino acids (building blocks of proteins) to the ribosome to make a protein.
dna vs rna differences
DNA vs. RNA (differences)

RNA

Sugar (Ribose)

Phosphate group

Nitrogenous Bases

A

U=Uracil(Not “T”)

G

C

Single Stranded

Shorter

DNA

Sugar (Deoxyribose)

Phosphate Group

Nitogenous Bases

A

T=Thymine

G

C

_Double Stranded

Longer

protein synthesis overview
Protein Synthesis Overview
  • 2 Main Processes
    • Transcription-_DNA_ copied into mRNA (nucleus)
    • Translation-mRNA made intoproteins_ ________ (ribosomes in cytoplasm)
slide7

Amino acid

Protein

Transcription!

DNA

Ribosome

tRNA

mRNA

Translation!!!!

transcription
Transcription
  • 1. DNA is unzipped (by RNA polymerase-enzyme) at a gene. “Promoter” initiates copying.
  • 2. ONE strand of the DNA template is transcribed (copied) into mRNA using complimentary base pairing.
  • 3. RNA polymerase reaches “termination Signal”/end of gene. Stops copying.
simulation
Simulation
  • http://www.phschool.com/atschool/phbio/active_art/protein_synthesis/index.html
slide14

Replication

DNA TO DNA

Transcription

DNA to mRNA

U

A

T

A

C

G

C

G

C

G

C

G

A

T

A

T

transcribe the following dna strands
Transcribe the following DNA strands.

ATTCGACG

UAAGCUGC

TTACCAGC

AAUGGUCG

TTAAAACG

AAUUUUGC

codon
Codon
  • ___ consecutive _________ on ______ that specify _ particular amino acid.
slide18

FLOW OF GENETIC INFO

Genetic Trait-Blue eyes

slide19

B

A

NUCLEUS

C

translation video
Translation Video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6O6uRb1D38&feature=related
slide21
Translation -- The decoding of mRNA into a protein

Nuclear envelope

Amino acid

tRNA

Polypeptide chain

Cell membrane

transcription translation video
Transcription/translation video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJxobgkPEAo
slide23
Translation

Decode mRNA to Proteins

steps of translation
Steps of Translation

AUGCCGAUC

  • 1. The mRNA strand is broken into codons
    • (Codon- 3 bases that code for an amino acids.)

Codon

Break the mRNA strand into codons!

AUGCCCGGGAAA

translation
Translation
  • 2.Ribosome reads the codons and translates them into amino acids.
  • How??
    • Uses the Genetic Code
        • Match the first letter on the left
        • Match the second letter on the top
        • Match the third letter on the right
        • Ex: codon AUG
        • Amino Acid: Methionine
example
Example

AUGCCCGGGAAA

Met

Pro

Gly

Lys

dna strand transcribe translate amino acid c c a t a g c a c g t t a c a a c g t g a a g g t a a
DNA STRAND (Transcribe, translate, amino acid)C C A T A G C A C G T T A C A A C G T G A A G G T A A
slide30
3.rRNAsends for the tRNA to bring the correct amino acids.
  • 4.The tRNA anticodons match up with the mRNAcodons
    • Ex: mRNA CUG -codon
    • t RNA GAC -anticodon brings the amino acid methionine attached to it.
  • 5.Amino acids are attached to each other making a protein, until a STOP codon is reached
translation continued
Translation continued
  • 6. Disassembly- Ribosome complex falls apart. Polypeptide chain (protein) is released.
slide33
DNA:ACA TTG TAG CAT

mRNA:

AminoAcids:

DNA: TTT TAC TGG CGC GTA

mRNA:

AminoAcids:

protein shape video honors only
Protein shape video-honors only
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lijQ3a8yUYQ
protein paths protein synthesis p 83
Protein Paths (Protein Synthesis) (p.83)
  • 1. Nucleus- DNA copied to RNA
  • 2. Ribosomes- RNA attaches to ribosomes (on ER) for protein synthesis.
  • 3. Protein leaves ER and goes to Golgi Apparatus
  • 4. Proteins modified/packaged in Golgi
  • 5. Vesicles release proteins out of cell through cell membrane
slide37

A

B

C

D

protein paths protein synthesis p 831
Protein Paths (Protein Synthesis) (p.83)
  • 1. Nucleus- DNA copied to RNA
  • 2. Ribosomes/Rough ER- Synthesize Proteins (send to Golgi)
  • 3. Golgi Apparatus- modifies/packages/sends proteins
  • 4. Cell Membrane- carries proteins from Golgi (in vesicles) to be released from cell