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Seed-crushers

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  1. Alaudidae (Larks; 7+ species) Fringillidae (Finches; 140+ species) Emberizidae (Sparrows; 100+ species) Seed-crushers Thraupidae (Tanagers; 75+ species) Cardinalidae (Cardinals; 40+ species) Note the short, wide, and deep bill long(“conical”); hooks absent or tiny; rictal bristles typically absent; upper mandible can be curved or straight. Passeridae (Old World Sparrows; 40species) Note relative bill size varies dramatically, depending on relative seed size

  2. At least 11 families, 550+ species Note that although many families show this bill type, they are all closely related except Alaudidae, and all are in Passeriformes. Ploceidae (Weavers; 20+ species) Estrildidae (Waxbills; 120+ species) Seed-crushers Icteridae (blackbirds; 4 species) Note the short, wide, and deep bill; hooks absent or tiny; rictal bristles typically absent. Calcariidae (Longspurs; 6 species) Viduidae (Whydahs; 20 species)

  3. Falconiformes Strigiformes Tytonidae (Barn Owls; 15 species) Falconidae (Falcons; 65 species) Strigidae (Owls; 180 species) Carnivores 3 unrelated orders, ca. 500 species Note the short, wide, and deep bill like seed-crushers, but strongly hooked for killing and tearing; upper mandible curved and typically much deeper than lower mandible. This bill is for tearing pieces out of prey too large to swallow whole. The killing is done with the feet. Accipitriformes Accipitridae (Hawks; 230+ species) Pandionidae (Osprey; 1 species) With the exception of some of the big eagles, bills size in carnivores relative to body size is SMALL.

  4. Bucconidae (Puffbirds – ca. 35 spp.) Large insect/small vertebrate eaters Alcedinidae (Kingfishers – 1 species) Note the relatively large bill in all dimensions, pronounced hook for holding and tearing, and (often) large rictal bristles. Coraciidae (Rollers; 12 spp.) Piciformes Coraciiformes Brachypteraciidae (Ground-rollers; 5 spp.)

  5. Large insect/small vertebrate eaters Thamnophilidae (Antbirds; ca. 50 species) Cotingidae(Cotingas – 1 or 2 genera) Passeriformes Note the relatively large bill in all dimensions, pronounced hook for holding and tearing, and (often) large rictal bristles. Tyrannidae (Tyrant-Flycatchers -1 genus) Furnariidae (Ovenbirds – 1 species) Grallariidae (Antpittas; ca. 60 species)

  6. Laniidae (Shrikes; ca. 30 species) Cracticidae (Butcher-birds; 6 species) Large insect/small vertebrate eaters Passeriformes Note the relatively large bill in all dimensions, pronounced hook for holding and tearing, and (often) large rictal bristles. Malaconotidae (Bush-shrikes; ca. 30 species) Corvidae (Crows and Jays; ca. 100 species)

  7. Nicatoridae (Nicators; 3 species) Laniidae (Shrikes; ca. 30 species) This bill is for grabbing and killing prey that is relatively large relative to the bird’s size. The large rictal bristles are primarily for protecting the eyes from struggling prey Cracticidae (Butcher-birds; 6 species) Large insect/small vertebrate eaters Passeriformes Note the relatively large bill in all dimensions, pronounced hook for holding and tearing, and (often) large rictal bristles At least 3 orders, 15 families, 350+ species Note: there is a continuum of variation between this bill type and the insectivore bill, with entire families such as Vireos and Old World Orioles not falling cleanly in either category Malaconotidae (Bush-shrikes; ca. 30 species) Vangidae(Vangas; 2-3 species)

  8. Pittidae (Pittas; 25+ species) Thamnophilidae (Antbirds; 100+ species) Furnariidae (Ovenbirds; 100+ species) Gleaning insectivores Acanthisittidae (New Zealand Wren; 4 species) Note the relatively long, thin bill; many have slight hooks and small rictal bristles. This bill is for gleaning relatively small prey. Atrichornithidae (Scrub-birds; 2 species) Oldest lineage in Passeriformes Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos; 50+ species)

  9. Gleaning Insectivores Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls; ca. 120 spp.) Maluridae (Fairy-wrens; ca. 30 spp.) Timaliidae (Babblers; ca. 250 spp.) Note the relatively long, thin bill; many have slight hooks and small rictal bristles. Old World Warbler families; ca. 400 spp.) Zosteropidae (White-eyes; ca. 100 spp.) Turdidae (Thrushes; ca. 100 spp.) … and many additional smaller families

  10. Gleaning Insectivores Motacillidae (Pipits and Wagtails; ca. 65 spp.) Parulidae (Wood-warblers; ca. 100 spp.) Thraupidae (Tanagers; ca. 50 spp.) Note the relatively long, thin bill; many have slight hooks and small rictal bristles. Icteridae (some species of blackbirds and orioles) Prunellidae (Accentors; 13 spp.) Fringillidae (some species of Hawaiian honeycreepers)

  11. Sallying Insectivores Tyrannidae (tyrant-flycatchers; ca. 350 species) Dicruridae (Drongos; 22 species) Conopophagidae (Gnateaters; 8 species) From side profile, like gleaning insectivores or, for some big species, large insect/small vertebrate-eaters. From above, base of bill much wider, giving it a triangular shape. Rictal bristles often prominent. Rhipiduridae (Fantails; 45 species Caprimulgidae (Nightjars; ca. 75 species Eurylaimidae (Broadbills; ca. 8 species)

  12. Sallying Insectivores Platysteiridae (Wattle-eyes; ca. 25 species) Monarchidae (Monarchs; ca. 75 species) Muscicapidae (Old World Flycatchers; ca. 200 species) From side profile, like gleaning insectivores or, for some big species, large insect/small vertebrate-eaters. From above, base of bill much wider, giving it a triangular shape. Rictal bristles often prominent. At least 9 families; ca. 800 species