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Identify Problems, Planning Objectives and Constraints. Problem Identification. Successful plans address real problems Problem identification directs future activities and the allocation of resources. A Shared Vision.
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What is needed most is a Common Understanding
of the Problem
Agreement on Appropriate Levels of Detail
Willingness to Learn About the Issues
Goals are general concepts
Objectives are operational definitions of goals
We will find ourselves refining all stages of the planning process. These are iterations
When we iterate, we change the scale, time, focus or emphasis of the process.
Iteration relies on feedback for knowing how much is good enough.
We use different techniques planning detail in our iterations.
Screening - separate the obviously bad from the others
We screen on all levels of the planning process (goals, objectives, constraints, alternatives, data, processes, etc.)
Screening is essential but over screening eliminates valuable choices.
Scoping - an open and early process for determining the scope of issues to be addressed an for identifying the significant issues related to a proposed action. (NEPA)
1. Invite participation of all parties
2. Determine scope and significant issues
3. Identify and eliminate from detailed study issues not significant or previously covered.
4. Allocate assignments for preparation of EIS among lead agencies
5. Identify other public ongoing studies or other EISs
6. Identify other environmental reviews
7. Relate study timeline to decision making.
Planning Area “location of resources that would be directly or indirectly or cumulatively affected by alternative plans”
Period of Economic Analysis Period over which we are to study, may be less than life of project Must be the same for all alternatives
A planning objective is a concise, formally structured statement which outlines
Planning objectives are developed to
Without good planning objectives
Both tactical and strategic plans must include
Both contribute to system sustainability
1. Identify problems of greatest concern
2. Translate problems into achievable objectives
3. Identify where this objective is to be met
4. Identify under what conditions the objective is to be met
Objectives should be stated in a positive sense!
Every Planning Study should be able to summarize the “Problems and Opportunities” and the “Planning Objectives” on two sheets of paper.
A fourteen-year old should be able to read these to his/her class and everyone in the room should be able to understand the essential features of the problem.
Constraints are limits to the range of planned responses
Three types of constraints exist
Natural - bound by the laws of nature
External - enforced by outside agents
Perceived - assumed to be undesirable, prohibited or impossible
Constraints are used in the planning process as
Constraints should be challenged if they