development of indicators and official statistics of gender based violence n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence. Sylvia Walby Lancaster University. Introduction. Focus: Indicators and statistics on gender-based violence Just a sub-set of information needs What are the priorities?

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence' - bellona-terry

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
development of indicators and official statistics of gender based violence

Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence

Sylvia Walby

Lancaster University

  • Focus: Indicators and statistics on gender-based violence
    • Just a sub-set of information needs
  • What are the priorities?
  • Contributions of academics, government statisticians, policy makers, NGOs.
national surveys
National surveys
  • Development of large scale national surveys in many countries
  • Many methodological refinements
    • Self-completion, wider range, new scaling
  • Interest in developing comparable national findings through surveys:
    • UN, EU, IVAWS
  • What priorities? Next steps?
domestic violence sexual assault and stalking findings from british crime survey
Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from British Crime Survey
  • BCS: under continual development
  • BCS self-completion module, 2001
    • 22,463 sample
    • Self-completion: computer turned to respondent to read and respond confidentially
    • Included domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking
    • Questions to both men and women
bcs self completion methodology
BCS Self-completion methodology
  • Comparing prevalence rate
    • Face-to-face interviewing
    • Self completion
  • Narrow definition DV (non-sexual, no threats)
    • face-to-face interviewing: 0.6%
    • self completion: 2.8%
  • Prevalence five times higher using self-completion methodology than face-to-face interviewing
comparing definitions in bcs self complete
Comparing definitions in BCS self-complete
  • DV Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS):
    • types of actions (e.g. slapped, kicked, choked)
    • frequency of incidents
  • Sexual assault and stalking
  • DV Injuries
    • Whether injured and how seriously
  • Whether victim/survivor saw it as DV
  • Whether victim/survivor saw it as a ‘crime’
cts and prevalence findings
CTS and prevalence findings
  • CTS Prevalence (in the last year)
    • Domestic abuse, threats or force: 5%
    • Domestic threats or force: 4%
    • Domestic force: 3%
  • Beyond CTS
    • Rape or assault by penetration: women: 0.5%
      • 54% of rape by intimate (including former)
  • Injuries
    • Whether women injured in worst incident last year:
    • Some injury: 72%
      • No injury 28%
      • Minor injury 46%
      • Moderate injury 20%
      • Severe injury 6%
victim survivors views
Victim/survivors’ views
  • Whether female victim/survivor saw it as DV
    • One incident, 56%; 4 or more times, 95% (last year)
  • Whether female victim/survivor saw it as a ‘crime’:
    • One incident, 24%; 4 or more, 66% (last year)
    • Injury: none 15%; minor 53%; severe 87% (lifetime)
why indicators
Why Indicators?
  • Simplify and abstract from complex data
  • Relevant to policy making and assessment
  • Provide a clear focus to measure change
    • National Plan; Performance indicators; Public Service Agreements for Comprehensive Spending Review
  • Enable international comparisons
  • Provide a different contribution than complex statistics, qualitative data, personal accounts.
  • Depend on large population surveys
productive tension between specificity and mainstreaming
Productive tension between specificity and mainstreaming
  • Specific nature of gender-based violence and detailed appreciation of distinctive nuances?
  • AND/OR
  • More general categories that facilitate addressing priorities within the mainstream, including crime?
types of indicators
Types of indicators
  • Outcome
    • The amount of gender based violence
  • Policy development and implementation
    • Identifying extent to which policy is implemented on the ground
  • Gender-based violence – UN
  • Domestic violence – HO?
  • Violence against women - WNC
  • Range of Actions
    • domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, FGM, forced marriage, ‘honour’ crimes, trafficking . . .
  • Range of Perpetrators
    • Partner, domestic non-partner, non-domestic?
outcome indicators
Outcome indicators
  • Home Office (2004) DV plan:
    • Domestic homicide
      • Robust, but small proportion of dv
    • Prevalence
      • Rate of domestic violence in the population
        • ‘headcount’
prevalence is it the best indicator
Prevalence: Is it the best indicator?
  • Advantages
    • Uses concept of DV as a ‘course of conduct’
    • Conventional measure among DV experts
  • Disadvantages
    • Hard to translate into crime statistics, which are based on number of ‘incidents’
    • Does not contain measure of severity
    • Specialised, not mainstream, indicator
severity of gender based violence and crime statistics
Severity of gender-based violence and crime statistics
  • Frequency/Incidents
    • Crimes are counted as incidents
    • If dv/gender based violence is to be mainstreamed into crime statistics there needs to be an incident count
  • Injuries
    • Violent crime categories are differentiated primarily by injury level, though also intent
    • To mainstream, injuries need to be known for each incident
prevalence incidents and gender
Prevalence, incidents and gender
  • Use of prevalence rather than incidents reduces the appearance of gender inequality in official statistics
  • Domestic violence prevalence:
    • 4% women, 2% men
  • Average no. incidents of domestic violence:
    • women 20, men 7
  • DV experienced as one incident only:
    • 28% women, 47% men
  • Total incidents DV:
    • 12.9 million against women, 2.4m men
  • Gender ratio prevalence: 2:1
  • Gender ratio incidents: 5:1
prevalence and incidents
Prevalence and incidents
  • Prevalence use of ‘course of conduct’ might mean that a series of 20 incidents may count only as one crime, thereby underestimating the proportion of violent crime that is dv/gender-based violence
  • Prevalence: single events count, thereby skewing the gender composition towards image of symmetry
injuries acts and the cts
Injuries, Acts, and the CTS
  • Conflict Tactics Scale uses ‘actions’ as severity measure
  • Crime Statistics use predominantly ‘injuries’ as severity measure (though also intention)
  • Injuries are more gender asymmetrical than actions
    • Minor force (e.g. slap): 49% women 36% men sustain physical injury
    • Severe force (e.g. choke, weapon): 77% women 56% men sustain physical injury
  • CTS suggests lesser gender inequality than crime categories
  • CTS does not usually include sexual assault
crime categories for indicators
Crime categories for indicators?
  • Crime categories:
    • Use incidents to measure extent
    • Use (primarily) injuries to measure severity
  • Advantages:
    • Mainstreams
    • Show gender dimensions of DV more effectively than CTS and prevalence
data needs
Data needs?
  • Prevalence
  • AND Crime based definitions of incidents, using injuries not acts
  • DV to include full range of actions, including domestic sexual assaults
  • Gender-based violence category to include DV, non-domestic sexual assaults, FGM, ‘honour’ crimes
implications for british crime survey
Implications for British Crime Survey
  • Self-completion important innovation
  • Both prevalence and incidents
  • Collect data additionally within crime categories
    • Name wider range of forms of gender based violence e.g. FGM
    • Collect data on each incident (not worst or last)
    • Injury (and intent)
    • ‘Victim forms’ to be completed on each incident
    • Increase maximum no. forms for each respondent
  • Findings to be integrated into crime count
  • Number of BCS violent crimes will rise
  • DV will appear as a higher % of BCS violent crime
policy performance
Policy Performance
  • Ministries and agencies have roles in reduction of gender-based violence
    • Criminal justice system
    • Health
    • Local authorities
    • Housing and refuges
    • Social services
    • Civil legal services
  • Few have the evidence to assess their performance, rarely knowing how much their services are used for DV
    • Reviewed in Cost of Domestic Violence
service indicators
Service indicators
  • What do we need to know?
    • What outcome and policy indicators?
  • Local authorities
    • New best value indicator includes DV
health developments in recording measuring
Health developments in recording/measuring
  • Screening and diagnostic codes
  • Screening dilemmas
    • Screen when referrals not ready?
    • BCS:
      • Asked cause of injuries: 94%
      • Disclosed cause of injuries: 74%
      • Referred to anyone else: 26%
  • Diagnostic code for DV
    • Primary not secondary code: under development
      • E.g. primary DV; secondary broken wrist
criminal justice system cjs recorded crimes criminal statistics
Criminal Justice System (CJS): recorded crimes, criminal statistics
  • Policy change in CJS and its implications
  • Attrition rate for rape high and rising (Kelly et al)
    • Conviction rate for reported rapes, 5.6% in 2002
  • Recognised need for ‘DV attrition’ rate (HO DV Nat Plan)
    • Rate of reporting to police (compare BCS rate with reported crimes)
    • Recording of reports by police (‘recorded crime’ or ‘domestic incident’)
    • Detection
    • Arrest (currently sole performance measure)
    • Prosecution
    • Completed court case
    • Conviction (criminal statistics)
ho objectives for reducing attrition of dv in cjs in national plan 2004
HO Objectives for reducing attrition of DV in CJS in National Plan 2004
  • Objective 4. Increase the rate at which domestic violence is reported . . . to the police . .
    • BUT No record of number of recorded crimes by police in official statistics for DV
  • Objective 5. Increase the rate at which domestic violence incidents result in sanction/detections . . .
    • BUT No record of DV detections/sanctions in official statistics
  • Objective 6. Increase the rate at which sanction detections are converted into offences/offenders brought to justice .
    • BUT No record of DV criminal convictions in criminal statistics
cjs data requirements
CJS data requirements
  • No recorded crime statistics on domestic violence, since not a specific criminal offence
    • BUT arrest rates for DV are produced, so there is a record of crime by whether domestic; but not public
  • Recommend: relevant recorded crimes are cross-classified as domestic or not as key aspect of recorded crime and criminal statistics
    • Met did this in 1999 (cf Health diagnostic codes)
  • Otherwise impossible to track DV in CJS statistics to evaluate progress on HO objectives
  • Much current development of statistical data and proposals for indicators
    • Nationally and internationally
    • BCS 2001 self-completion produced information on implications of different classifications
  • BCS: further development of outcome indicators
    • Mainstream into crime categories, as well as for specific needs
    • Numbers of incidents and injuries for each, as well as prevalence
    • Both DV and wider range of gender-based violence
  • International standards for EU and global comparisons?
  • Recorded crime and criminal statistics:
    • cross-classify violent crimes by domestic
  • Further development of public services performance indicators