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Strana et Illicita - Senatorial Decree, 35 CE. History, Christianity and the Transformation of the Classical World 100 BCE – 100 CE. A . Century of Turmoil. Social Wars 91 BCE optimates v. populares Spartacan Revolt 73 BCE

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Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

Strana et Illicita- Senatorial Decree, 35 CE

History, Christianity and the Transformation of the Classical World

100 BCE – 100 CE

A century of turmoil
A. Century of Turmoil

Social Wars 91 BCEoptimates v. populares

Spartacan Revolt 73 BCE

New Men in power 59 BCE- 1st Triumvirate Crassus, Pompey, Caesar

B crossing the rubicon
B. Crossing the Rubicon

  • Julius Caesar d. 44 BCE- Gallic conquests

  • & Cleopatra- Ptolemies

C the end of the republic
C. The end of the Republic

1. Second Triumvirate 42 BCE

- Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus

- Battle of Actium 31 BCE

Age of the emperors
Age of the Emperors

Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus

“Invisible Monarchy”

Senate remains, but republic is lost

D the roman soul in crisis
D. The Roman Soul in Crisis

  • Mystery Cults- secret rituals- required initiation- ecstatic response / presence of god- eternal life

  • Monotheism? Gaia – “Mother Earth”

    Cicero106-43 BCEStoicism – duty to one’s role divine providence

A traditions in conflict
A. Traditions in conflict

Judah the Maccabee Hasmoneans 165-63 BCE- Hebrews v. Hellenism- cosmopolitan v. traditionalist Seleucid Kingdom

B hebrew resistance to rome
B. Hebrew Resistance to Rome

  • Pompey & the Pirates

  • Judea 63 BCE

    Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem

3. Division- Sadducees qualified interaction written law- Hasidim cultural purity

Pharisees prophetic visions life after death Hillel the Elder “Golden Rule”

Zealots (6 CE)

4. Grassroots fervor

- John the Baptist

“generation of vipers!”

Critic of Hebrew leaders

C joshua ben joseph ca 6 30 ce
C. Joshua ben Joseph ca. 6-30 CE

  • Populist- Jewish tradition- miracle worker

    Messiah (?)

  • Progressive

    - Sermon on the Mount [Matthew]

    - appeal to/for the powerless, despised

    “spirit of the law”

A the cult of christ
A. The Cult of Christ

  • Maintained cult as Jewish sect

    - circumcision; Torah

    - conversion to Judaism

    - baptism; eucharist


  • Messiah?- Again with the Gentiles

    - stumbling block: the crucifixion

  • We’re not with them- Roman / Hebrew War, 66-73 CE- Gospels: blame the Jews


  • Pagans for Jesus- mythologyOsiris, Tammuz, Dionysus, Horus

    - women & slaves

    - the End is near (look busy)

    5. Appeal and threat

    - Decius r. 249-251

B paul of tarsus 5 67 ce
B. Paul of Tarsus 5-67 CE

  • Paul’s vision

    - completion of Jewish history

    - scripturally based: “Old” (Hellenized Jews)

    “New” Testament

    Gospels (second-hand)Epistles (letters of instruction)Acts (Church history)Revelation (crisis literature)

  • Break from Hebrew tradition

    - salvation was gift (grace)

    - salvation open to non-Jews

    - salvation dependent on faith, membership, & ritual


  • Hierarchy

    - patriarchates

    - bishops; presbyters; deacons/deaconesses

    - ecclesiae

    Roman model

    Limited role of women (1 Corinthians)- subordinate to Church- subordinate to husbands

  • Roll call of the damned – 1 Corinthians

    - creation of the “other”- paganism; fornicators (homosexuality ?)

    - Roman decline

    - echo of Augustus

    emphasized Greco-Roman concept of jurisprudence

    - spirit and letter of the law

Paul organized early Christianity and made it appealing to a wide array of people...

…but it was Roman oppression that gave Christians an added sense of identity through shared hardship

Iv rome in the augustan age

IV. Rome in the Augustan Age wide array of people...

Why an emperor
Why an Emperor? wide array of people...

  • [Rhetorical] defense of Republican virtues

  • Reform / civic peace

  • The Pax Romana31 BCE - 192 CE

A invisible monarchy
A. Invisible monarchy wide array of people...

  • What’s in a name?

    - Consul, Augustus 27 BCE, Governor

    - Imperium Maius, imperator

    - princeps civitatus

  • Reform the Senate

    3. Build Equestrian class

B army reform
B. Army reform wide array of people...

  • Addition by subtraction

    - 60 to 28 legions

    - dispersal

    - Praetorian Guard

2. The Legionnaires wide array of people...

- standing army / navy

- long tours

- chance for promotion

- veterans benefits

  • The Auxiliaries

    - chance for citizenship

    Army was a crucial instrument in spreading influence

C make the world rome
C. Make the world “Rome” wide array of people...

Little Romes

- fusion of cultures

- loyal patricians

- bureaucracy

D moral regeneration
D. Moral Regeneration wide array of people...

  • The “family values” Emperor

    - tax breaks for kids

    - stiff penalties for adultery, the unmarried “virtue”

    2. Pontifexmaximus

    - “Cult of the Genius of the Emperor”

    What links the Empire together?