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Indigenous Peoples. ANTH 146. Terms. Indigenous peoples • Tribal / Tribal people Genocide • Ethnocide Terra Nullius • Social Darwinism Imperialism Economies and • Colonialism Exchange. Indigenous People

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PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Indigenous Peoples' - belle-bradshaw


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Presentation Transcript
terms
Terms
  • Indigenous peoples • Tribal / Tribal people
  • Genocide • Ethnocide
  • Terra Nullius • Social Darwinism
  • Imperialism
  • Economies and • Colonialism
  • Exchange
slide3
Indigenous People

• claim their lands because they were the 1st or have occupied them since time immemorial

• are groups that have been conquered by peoples racially, ethnically, or culturally different from themselves (Colonization, Westernization, Urbanization and the role of Nation State)

slide4
Native peoples of the Americas share many parallels with indigenous peoples today
  • Indigenous peoples had no place in the making of the Nation-state.
social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • Theory of social evolution
  • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution
  • Scientific support for imperialism
    • Proved Western superiority
    • Justified imperialism in the name of progress.
social darwinism1
Social Darwinism
  • Placed societies on an evolutionary framework
  • Hierarchy with indigenous and tribal peoples at the bottom and Western societies at the top
  • Natural order of things was for stronger, more advanced people to conquer and rule over weaker, more backward ones
slide7
To overcome “backwardness” and indigenous society was urged to:
      • Abandon its traditional way of life
      • Abandon its language
      • Cease to exist as a separate society
      • Assimilate with the population
ethnocide
Ethnocide
  • Conquest of the indigenous peoples was justified
    • They were not fully human (no rights)
    • Need to civilize them
    • Development
      • Indigenous peoples stand in the way of development
slide9
If indigenous peoples unwilling to assimilate
      • They undermine the State
      • Impede modernization
economies
Economies
  • Definition: Making or getting a living
  • Production, Distribution, Consumption
  • Economic types:
    • Foraging, food-collecting  reciprocal exchange, mobile bands, consumption for survival
  • Horticulture, garden cultivation  redistribution by chiefs for prestige
  • Pastoralism  redistribution

Agriculture  market exchange, private land ownership

Industrialization – of goods and food  market exchange, stratified social classes, consumption goal in itself

    • Service/information economies
exchange
Exchange
  • Exchange (distribution of goods) promotes social cohesion
  • Major types of exchange:
    • Reciprocity
    • Redistribution
    • Market
reciprocity
Reciprocity
  • Food collecting, small-scale societies
  • Egalitarian
  • Fosters long-term relations
  • Everyone taken care of  moral economy
  • Redistribution
  • Centralized collection of surplus (food, goods, etc.) by chief
  • Redistribution through feasting – provides for all
  • Often competitive -- gain in status, prestige
market exchange
Market Exchange
  • Buying/selling of commodities (even food)
  • Direct exchange of goods (barter)
  • Exchange through money
nomads foragers pastoralists
Nomads: Foragers/Pastoralists
  • Highly mobile
  • Inconvenient to nation-states
  • Straddle national boundaries
  • Disrupt the imaginary map of homogenous development
slide15
Hunter and Gatherer
  • Pastoralists
    • Animal husbandry
  • Horticulturalists
    • Swidden agriculture / slash and burn
slide16
Indigenous cultures are not

extinguished by natural laws but by

political processes that are susceptible

to human controls.

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