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TMT science & instrument workshop Oct. 16-17, 2013 @ Tokyo. Water and Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks - High-R Spectroscopy -. Hideko Nomura (Tokyo Tech.) Matthew J. Richter (UC Davis). §1 Introduction. From protoplanetary disk to planets. Dust growth & settling.

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water and organic molecules in protoplanetary disks high r spectroscopy

TMT science & instrument workshop

Oct. 16-17, 2013 @ Tokyo

Water and Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks- High-R Spectroscopy -

Hideko Nomura(Tokyo Tech.)

Matthew J. Richter (UC Davis)

from protoplanetary disk to planets
From protoplanetary disk to planets

Dust growth

& settling

Planetisimal formation

Collisional growth

of planetisimals

Planet formation

Dispersal of gas

(e.g., Hayashi et al. 1985)

Observationally diagnose

planet formation theory and origin of materials

in our Solar System

(C) Newton Press

obs of gas in protoplanetary disks
Obs. of Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

UV

(sub)mm

H2Lyman-Werner

band transitions

TMT will be able to observe IR lines with high-R & high sensitivity

12CO 6-5, 3-2, 2-1, 1-0,

13CO 3-2, 2-1, 1-0,

C18O 2-1, 1-0,

HCN, HNC, DCN, CN,

CS, C34S, C2H, H2CO,

HCO+, H13CO+, DCO+,

N2H+, HC3N, c-C3H2, etc.

Optical

[OI] 6300A

NIR

H2 v=1-0 S(1), S(0),

CO Dv=2, Dv=1, etc.

MIR

H2 v=0-0 S(1), S(2), S(4)

H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2, CO2, NH3

(Ground & Spitzer Space Telescope)

ALMASV

100AU

TW Hya

FIR

[OI] 63um, 145um,

CO, H2O, CH+, HD, etc.

(Herschel Space Observatory)

HCO+(4-3)

need for high r spectroscopy
Need for High-R Spectroscopy

Typical width of IR lines from PPDs ~ 10-20km/s

→need high-R spectroscopy (R~15,000) for detection

need very high-R (R~100,000) for analysing profiles

H2 S(4)@8mm

AB Aur

Gemini/TEXES (R>80,000)

S(2)@12mm

S(1)@17mm

Kepler rotation

F~10-14erg/s/cm2, Dv~10-20km/s

(Bitner et al. 2007, 2008)

need for high r spectroscopy1
Need for High-R Spectroscopy

Typical width of IR lines from PPDs ~ 10-20km/s

→need high-R spectroscopy (R~15,000) for detection

need very high-R (R~100,000) for analysing profiles

High-R spectroscopy@TMT will enable us to detect fainter lines

& analyse profiles of weaker lines

VLT/CRIRES

(R=100,000)

Subaru/IRCS (R=20,000)

HD141569

SR21

Inner hole @ 7AU

(Goto et al. 2006)

4.7mm CO line profiles

→ Line emitting regions

MICHI

(Y.K. Okamoto)

Kepler rotation

Inner hole @ 11AU

(Pontoppidan+ 2008)

→ See also Matt Richter’s poster

water organic mol in ppds
Water & Organic Mol. in PPDs

ESA

Detect H2O snow lines

Detect complex organic molecules

with high-R spectroscopy @ TMT

Halley

a

§2 formation

of organic mol.

H2O, CO2, CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, NH3, etc.

§3 H2O snow line

slide9

Observed Interstellar Molecules

CH+

HCN

H2CO

HC3N

CH3OH

HC5N

HCOOCH3

HC7N

CS

HNC

H2CS

HCOOH

CH3CN

CH3CCH

CH3C3N

HC9N

CO

HCO

H2CN

CH2NH

CH3NC

CH3NH2

CH3COOH

HC11N

CN

OCS

HNCO

CH2CO

CH3SH

CH3CHO

CH2CHCHO

C2H5CN

C2

CH2

HNCS

NH2CN

NH2CHO

CH2CHCN

CH3C4H

CH

C2H

C3H

C4H

C5H

C6H

CH3C5N

H2C6

CO+

C3

c-C3H

c-C3H2

H2C4

c-C2H4O

CH3OCH3

CF+

CO2

C3N

H2C3

HC3NH+

CH2CHOH

C2H5OH

C2O

C3O

CH2CN

C6H-

C2S

C3S

HCCNC

CH3COCH3

HCO+

CH3

HNCCC

OHCH2CH2OH

C2H5OCHO

HOC+

C2H2

CH4

HCS+

HOCO+

H2COH+

C8H-

HCNH+

CH2OHCHO

CN-

C5N-

CH3CONH2

Amino acids in comet

@ STARDUST

Amino acids in meteorites

⇔ relation with

interstellar molecules ?

→amino acids ?

(Elsila et al. 2009)

C4H-

NH2CH2COOH?

C3N-

by ~1975

after ~1997

complex molecule fomration on grain surface
Complex Molecule Fomration on Grain Surface

cold: < 20K

C, O, N,

S, CO, …

warm: 30-50K

H

desorption

NH2,

HCO, …

CH3O

grain surface

grain surface

\

Saturated mol.

Unsaturated mol.

HCOOCH3, NH2CHO, …

migrate

UV, CR,

X-rays

UV

CH4, H2O, NH3,

H2S, CH3OH, …

themal

(e.g., Garrod+ 2006, 2008)

Complex molecules are formed on grains

More complex molecules on warm grains

complex molecules on warm grains
Complex Molecules on Warm Grains

OSU chemical network (Harada et al. 2010, Garrod et al. 2008)

CH3OH line spectra

CH3OH

Tdust

3 4 6 7 8 9 10

ALMA band

Methanol will be observable only at outer disk even with ALMA…

Detect complex molecules & understand grain surface reactions at planet forming region with TMT!

Z/R

30-50K

(Walsh, Millar, HN et al. 2013, submitted)

Flux Density [Jy]

C2H5OH

CH3COCH3

aceton

Z/R

Frequency [GHz]

Strong methanol lines will be observable

R [AU]

R [AU]

Complex mol. are formed on warm grains at

T~30-35K(~50A) = cometary region

mir hcooh lines @ tmt
MIR HCOOH Lines @ TMT!

telluric

ALMA

HCOOH

TMT!

Try first detection of MIR formic acid lines from protoplanetary disks with TMT!

Z/R

R [AU]

co snow lines in disks
CO Snow Lines in Disks

HD163296

SMA

CO6-5@691GHz

13CO2-1@220GHz

C18O2-1@220GHz

CO3-2@346GHz

C17O3-2@337GHz

CO2-1@231GHz

dust settling

H2O snow lines around low mass stars will be difficult to access even with ALMA…

Detect H2O snow lines by

obs. with high-spectral res. @ TMT!

CO snow line @ R~155AU

(Qi et al. 2011)

TW Hya

ALMA SV

@band7,

DCO+ 5-4

ALMA

cycle 0

N2H+ 5-4

[DCO+]

/[HCO+]

=0.3

CO snow line @ R~30AU

(Qi et al. 2013c)

(Mathews et al. 2013)

obs of water lines from ppds
Obs. of water lines from PPDs

cold FIR lines

warm FIR lines

hot MIR lines

Spitzer hot H2O@10-35mm, TTSs: detect, HAEBEs: upper limits

Herschel warm H2O TTSs, HAEBEs: @55-180mm

Herschel cold H2O @267mm, 539mm, TW Hya, HD100546

Herschel/HIFI

TW Hya

H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2

AA Tau

Spitzer/IRS

(Hogerheijde+ 2011)

(Carr & Najita 2008)

(Riviere-Marichalar+ 2012)

[OI]

H2O

Herschel/PACS

AA Tau

h2o snow lines in ppds
H2O snow lines in PPDs

TW Hya

Spitzer/IRS

Spitzer/IRS

model

Inner hole

AA Tau

H2O line ratios + disk model

→ predict H2O snow lines

The results are model dependent…

DR Tau

Herschel

PACS

HIFI

AS 205

model with snow line

H2O Snow line @ ~1AU

H2O Snow line @ ~4AU

(Meijerink+ 2009)

(Zhang+ 2013)

h2o snow line by high r obs
H2O Snow Line by High-R Obs.

Line width ~ 10-20km/s

→need high-R spectroscopy

(R~100,000) for analysis

Line fluxes @ Spitzer

> 1e-14 erg/s/cm2

TMT will be able to analyze statistical properties of H2O snow lines!

(Carr & Najita 2011)

TMT/MICHI

Kepler rotation

summary
Summary

High-R spectroscopy of transition lines of water & organic molecules in PPDs

Detect H2O snow line by very high (R~100,000) spectroscopy for understanding

rocky/gaseous planet forming regions

Detect complex organic molecules and understand grain surface reactions

in planet forming regions by high (R~15,000) spectroscopy for predicting formation of more complex molecules