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One Year Post Exclusivity Adverse Event Review ADDERALL XR ® Pediatric Advisory Committee Meeting March 22, 2006 PowerPoint Presentation
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One Year Post Exclusivity Adverse Event Review ADDERALL XR ® Pediatric Advisory Committee Meeting March 22, 2006. Susan K. McCune, M.D. Medical Officer Division of Pediatric Drug Development Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Food and Drug Administration. Overview. Background

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One Year Post Exclusivity Adverse Event ReviewADDERALL XR®Pediatric Advisory Committee Meeting March 22, 2006

Susan K. McCune, M.D.Medical Officer

Division of Pediatric Drug DevelopmentCenter for Drug Evaluation and Research

Food and Drug Administration

overview
Overview
  • Background
  • Clinical Trials for Initial Approval (adults and children 6-12 years of age)
  • Clinical Trials for Exclusivity (Adolescents 13-17 years of age)
  • Adderall XR® Use Information
  • Adverse Event Reports for Adderall XR® (10/28/04-11/28/05)
background drug information
Background Drug Information
  • Drug: Adderall XR® Capsules (dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate)
  • Therapeutic Category: Central nervous system stimulant
  • Sponsor: Shire US Inc.
  • Indication: Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Original Market Approval: October 11, 2001
    • Adderall was originally marketed in 1960 under the trade name Obetrol®
    • Adderall was approved to treat ADHD and narcolepsy in 1996
  • Pediatric Exclusivity Granted: October 28, 2004
background drug information4
Background Drug Information

Mechanism of action

Therapeutic action of Adderall XR® in ADHD is unknown, although like methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.

Peripheral actions include elevations of both diastolic and systolic blood pressure and weak bronchodilator and respiratory stimulant actions.

Drug Delivery System

Each capsule contains two types of drug-containing beads designed to give a double-pulsed delivery of amphetamines, allowing for once daily administration.

http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/biology/units/neuro/images.html

drugs to treat adhd from the clinical practice guidelines
Drugs to Treat ADHD From the Clinical Practice Guidelines

Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Committee on Quality Improvement. 2001. Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 108:1033-1044.

Stimulants

(First-Line Treatment)

Non-Stimulants

  • Atomoxetine
    • Strattera®

Methylphenidate

  • Short acting
    • Ritalin®, Methylin®
  • Intermediate acting
    • Ritalin SR®, Metadate ER®, Methylin ER®
  • Long acting
    • Concerta®, Metadate CD®, Ritalin LA®

Antidepressants*

(Second-Line Treatment)

  • Tricyclic antidepressants
    • Imipramine, Desipramine
  • Bupropion
    • Wellbutrin®, Wellbutrin SR®

Amphetamine

  • Short acting
    • Dexedrine®, Dextrostat®
  • Intermediate acting
    • Adderall®, Dexedrine spansule®
  • Long acting
    • Adderall XR®

* Not FDA approved for ADHD treatment

Pemoline

Cylert® discontinued by Abbott

slide6

From: Rappley, MD, 2005, Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, N. Engl. J. Med. 352:165-173

clinical studies for adderall xr initial approval
Clinical Studies For Adderall XR® Initial Approval

(Original Market Approval 10/11/01)

Clinical Trials

A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel-group study in adults (N=255)

A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel-group study in children aged 6-12 years (N=584)

A classroom analog study in children aged 6-12 years compared to placebo (N=51)

All studies demonstrated significant improvement in patient behavior

exclusivity studies for adderall xr granted 10 28 04
Exclusivity Studies For Adderall XR®(Granted 10/28/04)

Clinical Trials for Adolescents

PK trial (17 adolescents < 75kg, 6 adolescents >75kg)

A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study in adolescents aged 13-17 years (N=327)

Primary cohort (N=287 weighing < 75 kg) randomized to a fixed dose treatment for four weeks (placebo, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, or 40 mg once daily in the morning)

Secondary cohort (N=40 weighing >75 kg) randomized to a fixed dose treatment for four weeks (placebo, 50 mg or 60 mg once daily)

The primary efficacy variable was the ADHD-RS-IV total scores for the primary cohort

Improvements in the primary cohort were statistically significantly greater in all four primary cohort active treatment groups compared with placebo

Not adequate evidence that doses greater then 20 mg/d conferred additional benefit

adderall xr
Adderall XR®

Approved Labeling Following Exclusivity Trials

Clinical

Pharm

Clinical

Studies

Dosage/

Admin

adderall xr discontinuations and adverse events in exclusivity trials
Adderall XR® Discontinuations and Adverse Events in Exclusivity Trials

In adolescents, 8 patients (3.4%) discontinued treatment due to insomnia, depression, motor tics, headaches, light-headedness, and anxiety

Clinical Trial Adverse Events Reported in 5% or More of Patients

2-4% reported accidental injury, asthenia (fatigue), dry mouth, dyspepsia, emotional lability, nausea, somnolence, and vomiting

drug use trends adderall xr 2003 2005
Drug Use Trends: Adderall XR® (2003-2005)
  • Number of prescriptions dispensed by retail pharmacies increased from approximately 7.3 million in the pre-exclusivity period (11/03 to 10/04) to approximately 8.6 million in the post-exclusivity period (11/04 to 10/05)1
  • Psychiatrists were the most frequent prescribers (31.8%) and pediatricians the second most frequent prescribers (29.7%) in the post-exclusivity period1
  • Pediatric retail pharmacy prescriptions (0-16 years of age) accounted for 63.8% of all Adderall XR® prescriptions in the post-exclusivity period1

1Verispan®, LLC, November 2002 to October 2005. Data extracted 12/21/05

percentage of prescriptions for the top three molecules for adhd treatment
Percentage of Prescriptions for the Top Three Molecules for ADHD Treatment

Percentage of Total Prescriptions (%)

1Verispan®, LLC, November 2002 to October 2005. Data extracted 12/21/05

percentage of prescriptions for amphetamine and dextroamphetamine combinations
Percentage of Prescriptions for Amphetamine and Dextroamphetamine Combinations

Percentage of Total Prescriptions (%)

1Verispan®, LLC, November 2002 to October 2005. Data extracted 12/21/05

adverse event reports for adderall xr
Adverse Event Reports for Adderall XR®

October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005

Raw Reports

* Includes 40 reports with no age reported

pediatric adverse event reports for adderall xr and adderall
Pediatric Adverse Event Reports for Adderall XR® and Adderall®

Adderall®

Adderall XR®

98 reports

29 immediate release

2 adult reports

Subtract 29

69 reports

4 adults

16 duplicates

4 no adverse effect

27 total pediatric immediate release Adderall® reports

45 reports

Add 3

3 additional Adderall XR reports

48 total pediatric Adderall XR® reports

slide17

Characteristics of Pediatric Adverse Event Report Outcomes and Indications for Adderall XR®and Adderall®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005

adverse event reports adderall xr
Adverse Event Reports Adderall XR®

October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005

deaths in pediatric patients taking adderall xr n 5
Deaths in Pediatric Patients Taking Adderall XR® (N=5)

October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005

  • 10 year old collapsed at home after 22 months of treatment with Adderall XR® 15 mg/d. Autopsy revealed coronary artery anomalies. Other family members were subsequently found to have short QT syndrome.
  • 10 year old experienced sudden death while taking Adderall XR®. No details available.
  • 12 year old who took methylphenidate for 4 years died suddenly after running cross-country on the first day of Adderall XR® (10mg/d). No autopsy. Mother had a history of ventricular tachycardia.
  • 11 year old took Adderall XR® (15mg/d) for approximately 4 months. Two months after discontinuing Adderall XR®, the patient was found unresponsive and could not be revived. Autopsy listed cardiopulmonary arrest of obscure causes. At the time of death, patient was on atomoxetine and bupropion.
  • 14 year old made unusual movements and collapsed at school. He developed ventricular fibrillation. He was hospitalized on full support but died 10 days later. No autopsy. He had been on Adderall XR for 3 years.
deaths in pediatric patients taking adderall n 2
Deaths in Pediatric Patients Taking Adderall® (N=2)

October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005

  • 12 year old experienced sudden cardiac death while running. The patient had been taking Adderall® 30mg/d for 5 months. Concomitant medication was atomoxetine. Autopsy found an unspecified “genetic cardiac problem”.
  • 7 year old died during sleep after restarting Adderall® following a summer break. Autopsy found a bicuspid aortic valve.
deaths in pediatric patients taking adderall xr or adderall 1 1 99 11 28 05 n 23 unduplicated cases
Deaths in Pediatric Patients Taking Adderall XR® or Adderall®(1/1/99 – 11/28/05)N = 23 unduplicated cases
slide22

Sudden Deaths and Suicides in Pediatric Patients Taking Adderall XR® or Adderall®(1/1/99 – 11/28/05)

Suicides = 3

1 suicide

No suicides

No Sudden

Deaths

Sudden Deaths = 7

2 Duplicates

Sudden Deaths = 12

O

X

O

X

Health Canada

Off Market

January 1 1999

December 31

2003

October 28

2004

November 28

2005

Feb. 9

2005

Aug. 24

2005

categories of adverse events reported for adderall xr and adderall october 28 2004 november 28 2005
Categories of Adverse Events Reported for Adderall XR® and Adderall®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005

* Includes the 4 reports with no adverse event (3 No adverse Event, 1 Lack of Effect)

cardiovascular adverse events reported with adderall xr october 28 2004 november 28 2005 n 15 cases
Cardiovascular Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=15 cases)
  • Tachycardia (5)
  • Chest pain (4)
  • Prolonged QTc (1)
  • Arrhythmia (3)
  • Sudden death (4)
  • Autonomic dysfunction (1)
  • Unspecified cardiac disorders (2)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

Underlined events are unlabeled

psychiatric adverse events reported with adderall xr october 28 2004 november 28 2005 n 17 cases
Psychiatric Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=17 cases)
  • Hallucination (4)
  • Violent behavior (aggression, agitation, hostility, homicidal ideation, assault) (7)
  • Psychosis (3)
  • Suicidal ideation/attempt (4)
  • Crying/moodiness/irritability (4)
  • Paranoia (2)
  • Insomnia (3)
  • Nightmares/night terrors (1)
  • Depression (1)
  • Panic/anxiety (2)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

Underlined events are unlabeled

neurological adverse events reported with adderall xr october 28 2004 november 28 2005 n 5 cases
Neurological Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=5 cases)
  • Dyskinesia (2)
  • Seizure (1)
  • Depressed consciousness (1)
  • Leg spasticity (1)
  • Tic (2)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

Underlined events are unlabeled

respiratory adverse events reported with adderall xr october 28 2004 november 28 2005 n 3 cases
Respiratory Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=3 cases)
  • Respiratory arrest in a patient with severe asthma (1)
  • Dyspnea, throat tightness (1)
  • Asthma (1)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

Underlined events are unlabeled

dermatologic adverse events reported with adderall xr october 28 2004 november 28 2005 n 2 cases
Dermatologic Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=2 cases)
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis (1)
  • Generalized rash and skin exfoliation (1)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

Underlined events are unlabeled

slide29
Growth/Nutrition Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=3 cases)
  • Growth suppression (1)
  • Weight loss (2)
  • Anorexia (1)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

other adverse events reported with adderall xr october 28 2004 november 28 2005 n 3 cases
Other Adverse Events Reported with Adderall XR®October 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005 (N=3 cases)
  • Suspected glaucoma (1)
  • Increased prothrombin time (1)
  • Extremely high amphetamine levels (1)

NOTE: A case may report more than one adverse event

Underlined events are unlabeled

summary adderall xr adverse event report profile october 28 2004 november 28 2005
Summary: Adderall XR® Adverse Event Report ProfileOctober 28, 2004 – November 28, 2005
  • 48 unduplicated pediatric reports
  • Cardiovascular adverse events including sudden death (N=15)
    • Known and labeled risk especially in children with structural cardiac abnormalities
    • Plan for future studies to be discussed later today by Dr. Graham
  • Psychiatric adverse events (N= 17)
    • To be discussed later today by Dr. Gelperin and Dr. Mosholder
  • Serious skin reactions (N=2)
    • Not currently in the Adderall XR® label
    • Listed under Adverse Events with Other Methylphenidate HCl Products in the Concerta® label
  • Glaucoma (N=1)
    • Labeled as a contraindication
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

DNDP

  • Paul Andreason, M.D.
  • Thomas Laughren, M.D.

DSRCS/ODS

  • Carol Pamer, R. Ph.
  • Judy Staffa, R.Ph., Ph.D.
  • Toni Piazza-Hepp, Pharm. D.

DDRE/ODS

  • Kathleen M. Phelan, R.Ph.
  • Kate Gelperin, M.D., M.P.H.
  • Mark Avigan, M.D.
  • Rosemary Johann-Liang, M.D.

DPDD

  • Denise Pica-Branco, Ph.D.
  • Solomon Iyasu, M.D., M.P.H.
  • ShaAvhree Buckman, M.D., Ph.D.