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Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior. MKT 750 Dr. West. Agenda. Understanding attitudes & behavior Building brands Preparing for Tivo case. Answer Key. Satisfaction & Retention. Awareness & Availability. Overview . Models & Managerial Implications Need/Opportunity Post

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Agenda l.jpg
Agenda

  • Understanding attitudes & behavior

  • Building brands

    • Preparing for Tivo case



Overview l.jpg

Satisfaction

&

Retention

Awareness

&

Availability

Overview

  • Models & Managerial Implications

    Need/Opportunity Post

    Recognition Search Evaluation Choice Choice

Decision

Rules


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Satisfaction

&

Retention

Fishbein

Attitude

Model

Awareness

&

Availability

Overview

  • Models & Managerial Implications

    Prior Need/Opportunity Post

    Beliefs Recognition Search Evaluation Choice Choice

Decision

Rules


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What’s to come?

  • How knowledge is acquired and used

    • Attitude Formation & Change

    • Information Processing

    • Memory (storage & retrieval)

  • Managerial Implications

    • Brand building & maintenance

    • Communication (advertising)


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Predicting Behavior

Attitudes

Preferences

Intentions

Behavior

Social Norms


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Consumer Attitudes

  • Attitudes: represent what we like and dislike

  • Preferences: represent attitudes toward one object in relation to another


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Consumer Attitudes

  • Just because consumers prefer brand X doesn’t mean they will necessarily buy brand X


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Unfavorable Attitude

Favorable Attitude

Attitude toward the object:

How do you feel about Dell computers?

Coding Options:

(-3, -2, -1, 0,1, 2, 3)

Dislike very much       Like very much

Neutral Point


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Measuring Attitudes

Cognitive Component:

Measuring Beliefs about Specific Attributes Using the Semantic Differential Scale

Diet Coke

Strong taste —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Mild taste

Low priced —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High priced

Caffeine free —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High in caffeine

Distinctive in —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Similar in taste totaste most


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Measuring Attitudes

Affective Component

(Measuring Feelings about Specific

Attributes Using Likert Scales)

Neither Agree Strongly nor Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Disagree

I like the taste of Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— ——

Diet Coke is overpriced. —— —— —— —— ——

Caffeine is bad for your health. —— —— —— —— ——

I like Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— ——


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Measuring Attitudes

Behavioral Component

(Measuring Actions or Intended Actions)

The last soft drink I consumed was a ___________________.

I usually drink________________soft drinks a week.

What is the likelihood you will buy Diet Coke  Definitely will buy

the next time you purchase a soft drink?  Probably will buy

 Might buy

 Probably will not buy

 Definitely will not buy


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Attitude Objects: Ao

  • Product

  • Company

  • Retailer

  • Product attributes

  • Brand associations (logo, symbol)

  • Advertising and spokespersons


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Antecedents Consequences

Acompany

Abrand

Aproduct Intention Behavior

Astore

Aad

Aattributes


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Elements of Attitudes

  • Beliefs are subjective judgments about the relationship between two or more things

    • e.g. Product Quality, Reliability, Nutritional Value

  • Beliefs about a product’s attributes and their evaluationdetermine the favorability of one’s attitude toward the product


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Evaluation of

Product

Attributes

Overall

Product

Evaluation

Intention

to

Buy

Brand

Beliefs

Behavior

Theory of Reasoned Action:AMulti-Attribute Model

(ei) (bi) (Ao) (BI) (B)

Social

Norms

n

Ao = S bi ei + SN(Fishbein & Azjen)

i =1


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Running Shoes

Beliefs (bi)

Brand Brand Brand

Attribute Evaluation (ei) A B C

Shock absorbent +2 +2 +1 -1

Price less than $50 -1 -3 -1 +3

Durability +3 +3 +1 -1

Comfort +3 +2 +3 +1

Desired color +1 +1 +3 +3

Arch support +2 +3 +1 -2

Total score


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Running Shoes

Beliefs (bi)

Brand Brand Brand

Attribute Evaluation (ei) A B C

Durability +3 +3 +1 -1

Comfort +3 +2 +3 +1

Shock absorbent +2 +2 +1 -1

Arch support +2 +3 +1 -2

Desired color +1 +1 +3 +3

Price less than $50 -1 -3 -1 +3

Total score +29 +22 - 6

  • (3) (-3)

  • (6) (9) (3)

  • (2) (-2)

  • (2) (-4)

  • (3) (3)

  • (3) (3) (-3)


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Poor

Good

Poor

Good

Poor

Good

Poor

Good

Neglected Opportunity

Competitive Disadvantage

Competitive Advantage

Head-to-head competition

Null Opportunity

False Alarm

False Advantage

False Competition

HIGH

LOW

POOR

GOOD

POOR

GOOD

Stimulus Importance-Performance Grid

Attribute Our Competitor’s Simultaneous Importance Performance Performance Result


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Benefits of Multi-attribute Model

  • Diagnostic power-- examines WHY consumers like/dislike your product

  • Segmentation based on attribute importance

  • Competitive analysis

  • Forecasting sales, new product development, persuasion strategies


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Implications for Attitude Change

  • Changing beliefs (bi)

    • Cadillac (Heritage Reborn)

  • Changing attribute importance (ei)

    • Airbags & Safety

    • Antibacterial soap


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Implications for Attitude Change

  • Add a new attribute

    • Carbohydrates in beer?


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Influencing Consumer Attitudes:

  • Beliefs (bi) are easier to change than desired benefits (ei).

  • Attitudes are easier to change when

    • Involvement with the product category is low because attitudes are held with less confidence and commitment

    • They are based on subjective or second hand information rather than personal experience


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The rest of the story…

  • What’s missing from Fishbein’s “Theory of Reasoned Action”

    • Attitudes = F(Beliefs, Evaluations, Social Norms)

  • Where do our attitudes come from?

    • Friends and family

    • Personal experience

    • Observation

    • Media & Advertising


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Profit

Product Life Cycle

Decline:

harvest or rejuvenate

Time

Decelerating Growth:

new segments, brand extensions

Sales

Accelerating Growth:

build share, WOM

Maturity:

control costs, increase efficiency, monitor competitors and trends

Emergence:create awareness and induce trial


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Product Adoption Process

Types of Consumers

13½%

Early Adopters

2½%

Innovators

34%

Early Majority

34%

Late Majority

16%

Laggards


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Factors Affecting Adoption:The ACCORD Model

  • Advantage – the degree to which the product appears superior

  • Compatibility – matches the values and experiences of users

  • Complexity– ease of understanding and usage

  • Observability– the benefits of use observable and describable to others

  • Riskiness– negative outcomes can be foreseen

  • Divisibility– can the product be tried on a limited basis


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Launching TiVo

  • Analyze the situation from the consumer standpoint.

    • What is TiVo?

    • What factors facilitate or inhibit TiVo’s adoption?

    • Who is TiVo best suited for?

      • Segmentation and targeting


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Launching TiVo

  • Analyze the situation from the networks, the advertisers, and the cable/satellite companies perspective:

    • What do these stakeholders want TiVo to be?


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Launching TiVo

  • Think about the competition

    • What are Microsoft’s potential strengths and weaknesses in this market?

  • Evaluate Tivo’s action plan as given at the end of the case?


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Assignment

  • Read Chapter 7

  • Write-up the Tivo case