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PARADIGMA PENGEMBANGAN LAHAN. Diabstraksikan dan dihimpun : Nur WPM, Ardy W.S. dan Soemarno , pslp-ppsub 2012. LAND DEVELOPMENT As our population increases and available land becomes more scarce, land development becomes increasingly challenging.

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slide1

PARADIGMA PENGEMBANGAN LAHAN

Diabstraksikandandihimpun : Nur WPM, ArdyW.S. danSoemarno, pslp-ppsub 2012

slide2

LAND DEVELOPMENT

As our population increases and available land becomes more scarce, land development becomes increasingly challenging.

There are more government regulations and impact fees today than ever before, plus a host of local restrictions that make development difficult.

KONVERSI LAHAN SAWAH MENJADI KAWASAN PERUMAHAN

BOYOLALI, 15/5 - KONVERSI LAHAN PERTANIAN. Foto udara kompleks perumahan di tengah lahan pertanian kawasan Ngesrep, Ngemplak, Boyolali, Jateng, Selasa (15/5). Data Badan Pertanahan Nasional menyatakan selama kurun waktu 30 tahun terakhir Indonesia sudah kehilangan sekitar 30 juta lahan pertanian akibat konversi menjadi pemukiman atau lahan non pertanian. FOTO ANTARA/Andika Betha/mes/12. 15/5/2012 16:20

DIUNDUH DARI: http://www.antarafoto.com/bisnis/v1337073613/konversi-lahan-pertanian

slide3

LAND DEVELOPMENT

Definition

Conversion of raw land into construction ready housing, commercial, or industrial building sites.

Land development process involves improvements that have indefinite life, such as draining, dredging, excavating, filling, grading, paving, etc.

Land development refers to altering the landscape in any number of ways such as:

Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural state for a purpose such as agriculture or housing

Subdividing real estate into lots, typically for the purpose of building homes

Developing property or changing its purpose, for example by converting an unused factory complex into condominiums.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_development….. 1/11/2012

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Raw land

Land in its natural state, with no man-made improvements as cleaning, clearing, digging, filling, grading, etc.

slide5

ANALISIS PENGEMBANGAN

Development Analysis puts development prospects, and the development process itself, under the microscope, identifying exactly where enhancements and improvements can be introduced.

These improvements aim to align with best design practice, political sensitivities, and the inevitable social requirements of a project, with the overarching objective of increasing land values and profit margins on behalf of the landowner or developer.

Development Analysis can add significantly to the value of land and development, and as such is becoming a crucial weapon in the landowners and the developer's armoury.

Regulasi & Perijinan Pengembangan Lahan

As the land development industry faces more development regulations and unwieldy approval procedures, ways of removing barriers are more important than ever.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_development….. 1/11/2012

slide6

NILAI LAHAN

Land value is highly sensitive to issues such as supply and demand (for the end product), build costs, Planning and affordable housing contributions, and alike.

Conversely, understanding and enhancing the effect of value 'drivers' will have an equally positive effect. Therefore, understanding the intricacies of the development system, can equate to massive differences in the landowners sale value.

If development analysis is left to the developer however, then it will be he, and not the landowner, who will receive all of the betterment.

Green & Sustainable Development

The growing trend towards green and sustainable development offers many opportunities for builders and land developers.

Learn more about the issues, challenges, and solutions.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_development….. 1/11/2012

slide7

Growth / No Growth

While most people see Smart Growth and growth management as legitimate ways to help communities make sound decisions about growth, some see it as a way to limit growth.

Learn more about the growth debate here.

MANAJEMEN LAHAN

Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and rural settings) of land resources.

Land resources are used for a variety of purposes which may include organic agriculture, reforestation, water resource management and eco-tourism projects.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_management….. 1/11/2012

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SLM: SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT

The term sustainable land management is used in soil and environmental protection, in preservation of ecosystem services and mineral extraction.

Sustainable is also used in property and estate management as well as regional planning.

Strictly speaking (in a wider /opposite context) the term “sustainable land management” is applied in forestry (this is where it comes from originally), agriculture, land surveying and in combination with land use management.

“Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put to good effect.

It covers all activities concerned with the management of land as a resource both from an environmental and from an economic perspective.

It can include farming, mineral extraction, property and estate management, and the physical planning of towns and the countryside.”

Diunduh dari sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_land_management….. 1/11/2012

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SLM: SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT

“SLM is defined as a knowledge-based procedure that helps integrate land, water, biodiversity, and environmental management (including input and output externalities) to meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining ecosystem services and livelihoods.

SLM is necessary to meet the requirements of a growing population. Improper land management can lead to land degradation and a significant reduction in the productive and service (biodiversity niches, hydrology, carbon sequestration) functions of watersheds and landscapes.

The World Bank defines Sustainable Land Management as a process in a charged environment between environmental protection and the guarantee claim of ecosystem services on the one hand.

On the other hand it is about productivity of agriculture and forestry with respect to demographic growth and increasing pressure in land use.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_land_management….. 1/11/2012

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Preparation of Resettlement Action Plan for Irrigation and Drainage Schemes

The Government of Ethiopia is preparing an Ethiopian Nile Irrigation and Drainage Project that will provide 20,000ha of new irrigated agricultural land.

The irrigation schemes for development are Megech Pump and Ribb.

The Megech Pump development involves pumped irrigation from Lake Tana for 5,000ha of land. The Ribb scheme involves irrigation of 15,000ha from the Ribb River with water stored in the upstream Ribb Dam reservoir.

As a result of the projects, local inhabitants will be displaced. To address this, the Government is ensuring that displaced people can participate as ‘equal partners’ and can improve their standard of living.

SMEC is preparing Resettlement Action Plans.

SMEC’s services include: preparation of socio-economic surveys, preparation of resettlement and rehabilitation frameworks, preparation of land acquisition plans and development of detailed budgets for the implementation and management of the Resettlement Action Plan.

slide11

Pengembangan dan pengelolaan Jaringan Irigasi, Rawa dan Jaringan Pengairan

Pengembanganlahanirigasi:

Perencanaanpembangunanjaringanirigasi,

Pembangunan jaringan air bersih/air minum,

Perencanaanpembangunan reservoir,

Perencanaan Pembangunan pintu air,

Perencanaannormalisasisaluransungai,

Pembangunan jaringan air bersih,

Pembangunan reservoir,

Pembangunan pintu air,

Pelaksanaannormalisasisaluransungai,

Rehabilitasi/pemeliharaanjaringanirigasi,

Rehabilitasi/pemeliharaanjaringan air bersih/air minum, reservoir,  pintu air, normalisasisaluransungai,

Rehabilitasi/pemeliharaan, jaringanirigasi yang telahdibangun, petanipemakai air,

Monotoring, evaluasidanpelaporan.  

Diunduh dari sumber: http://dinaspupelalawan.webs.com/bidpengairan.htm…… 1/11/2012

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Pengendalian Banjir.…

PengembanganLahan: KontrolBanjir

Pembangunan Reservoir pengendalibanjir,

Rehabilitasi/pemeliharaan reservoir pengendalibanjir,

Rehabilitasi/pemeliharaanbantarandantanggulsungai,

Pengembanganpengelolaandaerahrawadalamrangkapengendalibanjir,

Peningkatanpartisipasimasyarakatdalampenaggulanganbanjir,

Mengendalikanbanjirpadadaerahtangkapan air danbadan-badansungai,

Peningkatanpembersihandanpengerukansungai/kali,

Peningkatanpembangunanpusat-pusatpengendalibanjir,

Pembangunan prasaranapengamanpantai,

Pembangunan tanggulpemecahombak,

Monitoring,evaluasidanpelaporan.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://dinaspupelalawan.webs.com/bidpengairan.htm…… 1/11/2012

slide13

Bendungan dan Jaringan Irigasi Sebagai Pendukung Sektor Pertanian

]

Salah satu program yang menjadi unggulan bagi pemerintahan daerah adalah pengembangan pertanian dalam arti luas. Guna mendukung program itu tentunya harus didukung dengan berbagai sarana dan prasarana. Selain lahan, pengairan dalam bentuk irigasi menjadi faktor penentu keberhasilan program tersebut.

Kaltim membangun beberapa bendungan yang berfungsi sebagai  irigasi pertanian. Pembangunan bendungan untuk irigasi pertanian dan sawah menjadi sangat penting  karena berdampak pada hajat hidup orang banyak.

Beberapa waduk yang mendapat prioritas pembangunan di antaranya Waduk Lambakan di Kabupaten Pasir,  Jaringan Irigasi Marangkayu di Kutai Kartanegara dan Bendungan Teritip di Kota Balikpapan.

Pembangunan Waduk Lambakan,  Kabupaten Paser, Pemprov Kaltim akan memanfaatkan untuk mengairi lebih dari 18 ribu hektar sawah dan lahan pertanian lainnya.

Selain itu, waduk ini juga berfungsi sebagai penanggulangan banjir untuk kawasan Longkali, Rawa Sebakung dan Muara Adang.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.kaltimprov.go.id/kaltim.php?page=detailberita&id=2727 …… 1/11/2012

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Rp 3 Miliar Untuk Kembangkan Jaringan irigasi

Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Tengah

Dinas Pertanian, Tanaman Pangan dan Holtikultura (PTPH) Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Tengah mendapatkan alokasi dana APBN Rp 3 miliar untuk optimalisasi pertanian.

Dana tersebut disalurkan melalui pemerintah provinsi ke kabupaten, yang langsung ditransfer ke rekening kelompok tani.

Dana bantuan sosial tersebut penggunaannya untuk mengembangkan jaringan irigasi 1.000 hektare di sejumlah kecamatan, yaitu Batubenawa, Limpasu, Batangalai Selatan, Labuanamas Selatan dan Haruyan.

Selain untuk irigasi, bansos digunakan  untuk pengembangan sumber air, konservasi air  antisipasi anomaly, dan pemeliharaan  bendungan di Desa Cukanlipai dan Banuabatung. 

Diunduh dari sumber: http://banjarmasin.tribunnews.com/2012/05/15/rp-3-miliar-untuk-kembangkan-jaringan-irigasi …… 1/11/2012

slide15

Bantuan JITUT dan JIDES Terkendala Musim Hujan

Di Purbalingga

Sebanyak17 kelompoktanidariempatkecamatanmenerimabantuanJaringanIrigasi Tingkat Usaha Tani (JITUT) denganluas 3.000 hektar. Sebanyak 22 kelompoktanidari 10 kecamatandenganluas 2.000 hektarmenerimabantuanJaringanIrigasiDesa (JIDES).

KeduabantuanjaringanitudiKabupatenPurbalinggamenelandanaRp 4,1 milar yang dialokasikandari APBN. Masing-masingkelompoktanimempersiapkan program danrencanakerjatermasukjadwalpelaksanaankegiatan.

Dana sebanyak Rp 4,1 milar itu termasuk biaya desain gambar serta konsultasi karena yang terlibat di dalamnya lebih banyak masyarakat petani sendiri yang melakukan swakelola.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.tubasmedia.com/berita/bantuan-jitut-dan-jides-terkendala-musim-hujan/…… 1/11/2012

slide16

Sarana Jalan Usaha Tani

Kelompok Tani Ngulir Budi mempunyai Jalan usaha Tani sebanyak 3 Buah yang rata rata sejauh 1 Km.

Upaya memperbaiki jalan tersebut dilaksanakan secara bertahap karena keterbatasannya dana, diantaranya pada awal kegiatan ialah diadakan penebangan semua pohon yang berada di jalan diantara tujuannya agar jalannya lancar disamping itu agar pada musim tanam padi pohon tersebut tidak dijadikan tempat berlindung burung pemakan padi karena sudah menjadi kebiasaan ketika musim padi sedang berbuah maka banyak hama burung.

Kegiatan dilaksanakan secara bergotong royong yang dananya diambilkan dari iuran para petani serta dari beberapa laba yang diperoleh dalam mengembangkan usaha kelompok tani

Diunduh dari sumber: http://ngulirbudi.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/…… 1/11/2012

slide17

Jalan Usahatani dan produksi

Desa Kebonpadangan :

Iventarisasi jalan-jalan Produksi untuk tujuan Peningkatan mutu jalan untuk miningkatkan nilai jual hasil pertanian dan nilai lahan.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://desakebonpadangan.wordpress.com/2011/09/01/jalan-usahatani-dan-produksi/…… 1/11/2012

slide18

Pertanian Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura

Pembangunan infrastruktur pertanian menjadi prioritas utama Pemerintah Kabupaten Tanah Laut.

Infrastruktur pertanian yang dibangun pada tahun 2010 diantaranya pembangunan jalan usaha tani (JUT) yang tersebar di beberapa kecamatan sepanjang 19.079 meter, pembangunan jalan produksi pangan sepanjang 3.672 meter, dan jalan produksi perkebunan 5.310 meter.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://bapeluh.blogspot.com/2011_11_01_archive.html…… 1/11/2012

slide19

Pengembangan Lahan dan Air Untuk Mendukung Peningkatan Produksi Pangan

Di Kalimantan Selatan

Pengembangan Pengelolaan Lahan dan Air di Kalimantan Selatan terus dilakukan untuk mendukung peningkatan produksi pangan daerah dengan melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan yang dapat meningkatkan sarana dan prasarana seperti Optimasi Lahan.

Lahan pertanian adalah salah satu faktor produksi yang sangat vital kerena lahan adalah merupakan media untuk tumbuhnya pertanaman. Banyaknya lahan – lahan yang selama ini belum di usahakan secara optimal, sehingga apabila diberikan sentuhan teknologi maka lahan di maksud dapat menghasilkan produksi yang cukup signifikan.

Jalan Usaha Tani merupakan hal yang utama untk mendukung peningkatan produksi kerena dengan jalan usaha tani yang di buat dapat membuka lahan-lahan yang selama ini tidak begitu di usahakan oleh petani, kerena keterbatasan sarana jalan, serta dengan pembuatan jalan usaha tani mobilitas masyarakat lebih hidup dan berkembang kerena kemudahan akses jalan dalam pengangkutan hasil lebih cepat dan mudah.

Diunduh dari sumber: http://distan.kalselprov.go.id/2010/04/pengembangan-pengelolaan-lahan-dan-air-untuk-mendukung-peningkatan-produksi-pangan/…… 1/11/2012

slide20

Smarter Growth

With our population growing and land resources limited,

planning for future growth is more important than ever.

That’s why Smarter Growth is essential.

Pembangunan jembatan dapat mengarahkan perkembangan wilayah kota

Foto . Marno-2011

slide21

Land Development Process

(10 Critical Stages)

1. Identifying Your Mission

2. Research and Investment – Land Acquisition

3. Product Design

4. Product Approvals

5. Detailed Planning and Engineering Design

6. Development/Construction

7. Marketing

8. Land Sales

9. Financial Outcomes

10. Review Future Land Requirements.

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide22

.. Stage 1 - Identifying Your Mission

Generating a Profit

Facilitating Orderly Urban Development

Positive Influence on Availability and Price

Market Segments To Serve

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide23

. Stage 2 - Research and Investment – Land Acquisition.

  • 1. Is Land Acquisition a Viable Business Venture
  • 2. Immediate Term 1-5 years
  • 3. Long Term Land Banking 6-25 years
  • 4. Considerations – Preparing a Business Case :
  • Land Costs – market appraisals
  • Environmental conditions (contamination and heritage aspects)
  • Servicing capacity, timing and costs
  • Other geophysical considerations
  • Understanding your market – short and long term

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide24

. Stage 2 - Research and Investment – Land Acquisition .

  • Regulatory environment (Federal, Provincial, MVA, Airport, Municipal)
  • Timing of opportunities (including those of other developers)
  • Adjacent land uses and transportation corridors
  • Understanding community values and need for acceptance by the public
  • Making sure that immediate term lands are positioned within Five Year
  • Land Development Program of City and identified within Sector Plans
  • Prepare Preliminary Concept
  • Seek agreement with other land owners
  • Prepare Initial Business Proforma
  • Approval by Board of Directors
  • Acquire lands
  • Within 5 years of development commence moving of land holding into development stream

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide25

. Stage 3 – Product Design .

Understand your market (short and long term)

Geotechnical/topographic survey of lands

Prepare Preliminary Concept Plan

Agreement with other owners on land allocations and cost sharing

Public consultations as required

Estimate servicing costs, enhancements costs, cost of sales and revenues

Finalize concept plan and prepare business plan

Prepare Preliminary Marketing Strategy

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide26

. Stage 4 - Product Approval Stage .

Submit Concept Plan to approving authority

Receive preliminary comments from approving authority and other agencies

Discussions to resolve design and financial issues

Adjust Concept Plan and submit for Final Approval

Receive approval of Concept Plan (with or without conditions)

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide27

. Stage 5 – Detailed Planning and Engineering Design .

Finalize subdivision plan for first phase of development

Survey and Land Title registration

Proceed to get zoning approval (or land use compatibility agreements where applicable)

Detailed Engineering Design for area grading, roadways, buffer strips and berms required for separation and noise attenuation, underground storm water management, public lands and subdivision enhancements (entry signs, streetscape, etc.)

Finalize Business Plan for approval by Board

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide28

. Stage 6 – Land Development/Construction of

Services and Amenities .

Finalize engineering design of services and roadways

Award tenders for construction

Project Management

Project inspections and payment of invoices

Finalize pricing of land and conditions of sale

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide29

. Stage 7 – Marketing .

Reconfirm or adjust initial marketing strategy

Implement – Media, print and sales packages for customers; webpage (continual updating)

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide30

. Stage 8 – Land Sales .

Notify Customers of public offering for sale of land

Award tenders for sale, or conduct lot draw and sale or direct offer for sale

Agreements for Sale and transfer of title to purchaser

Disbursement of proceeds from sale to accounts payable – balance to land development reserve.

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide31

. Stage 9 – Financial Outcome .

Review actual costs and revenues of each development phase in comparison with budget

Report Results to Board

Payment of Dividends – Distribution of Profits to Shareholders

Retain portion of earnings for re-investment in land acquisitions

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide32

. Stage 10 – Review Future Land Requirements .

Five year review

Identify shortfalls and surplus

Identify emerging opportunities

Start the Land Development Process again

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide33

.ProsesPengembanganLahan – NilaiTambahpadaLahan

SUMBER: www.saskatoon.ca/.../PlanningDevelopment/.../BB_RickHowseCityofSas...‎

slide34

.PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT.

Proses pembangunan propertidapat dibagi menjadi tahap utama berikut:

Inisiasi

Evaluasi

Perolehan

Desain dan biaya

Izin

Komitmen

Implementasi

Silahkan/ mengelola / membuang

SUMBER:: moodle.unitec.ac.nz/...php/.../Property%20development%20process.pdf‎‎

slide35

KETERJANGKAUAN PERUMAHAN

The recent economic downturn has had a silver lining lower housing prices.

Many homeowners continue to struggle with the cost of housing and remain priced out of some markets.

Learn the facts about housing affordability issues and solutions.

Biaya investasi untuk suatu bangunan (konstruksi) dibedakan atas biaya konstruksi (construction), biaya non-konstruksi (non-construction), dan biaya daur hidup (life-cycle).

Diunduh dari sumber: http://ilustri.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67:estimasi-biaya&catid=37:know-how&Itemid=2 ….. 1/11/2012

slide36

Kenyamanan lingkungan udara dan keindahan “view” menjadi faktor hedonik dalam property pricing.

Foto . smno-2011

slide37

A house

is a home, building or structure that is a dwelling or place for habitation by human beings.

The term includes many kinds of dwellings ranging from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to free standing individual structures.

In some contexts, "house" may mean the same as dwelling, residence, home, abode, lodging, accommodation, or housing, among other meanings.

The social unit that lives in a house is known as a household.

slide38

Land development : Campuss green openspace

Growing Greener: University of Pennsylvania

The Penn Univ. plan recommends a sustainable approach to development, with a particular focus on the opportunities available in the east expansion area.

Specific recommendations include:

a long-term plan for carbon reduction

high-performance buildings to reduce energy consumption

smart land use planning and increased open space

enhanced transportation

mitigating storm water issues

improving recycling practices

Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.pennconnects.upenn.edu/growing_greener/growing_greener.php…… 1/11/2012

slide39

…Type of land development...

Pengembangan lahan adalah setiap perubahan karakteristik lahan. Hal ini dapatterjadimelaluipembangunan kembali, konstruksi, pembagian lahan menjadi paket-paketuntuk dijual, disewakan atau menyewakan, atau kompleks kondominium, kompleks apartemen, taman komersial, pusat perbelanjaan, dan taman industri.

Pembangunan rumah atau bangunanlain untuk dijual, disewakanatau kombinasinya, dan karakteristik sewa juga dianggap sebagai pengembangan lahan; namun, renovasi, perluasan atau peningkatanvertikalbangunanyang sudahada tidak dianggap sebagaipengembangan lahan.

SUMBER: www.horrycounty.org/Portals/0/Docs/CodeEnforcement/.../LandDev.pdf‎

slide40

…Type of land development...

Ada empat (4) jenis pengembangan lahan: Major (besar), Minor (kecil), kelompok, danregional.

Pengembangan Major adalah:

Pembagianlahan yang terdiri dari lebih sepuluh (10) lot, proyek “rent” atau “lease” lebih dari 10 lot / unit; pembangunanrumah untukdisewakanataudikontrakkanlebih dari 10 lot (juga dikenal sebagai taman rumah yang mobile), dan pembangunanyang melibatkan penciptaan atau perpanjangan setiap jalan privat melebihi 1800 feet atau penciptaan jalan umum yang baru.

SUMBER: www.horrycounty.org/Portals/0/Docs/CodeEnforcement/.../LandDev.pdf‎

slide41

…Type of land development...

Perkembangan Minor adalah:

Pembagianlahanataupembangunanrumahuntuksewa / kontrakyang terdiri dari sepuluh (10) unit atau lebih sedikit. Pembangunan rumah sewa / kontrak10 unit atau kurang, atau pengembangan pusat-pusatkomersial, industri atau kantor yang menghasilkan rata-rata antara1.000 dan 5.000 ADT (perjalanan rata-rata harian).

SUMBER: www.horrycounty.org/Portals/0/Docs/CodeEnforcement/.../LandDev.pdf‎

slide42

…Type of land development...

Pengembangan kelompok adalah:

Proyek multi-keluarga yang terdiri dari unit-unitsewa atau kontrakdi beberapa bangunan padasebidang kawasanproperti, kompleks kantor di mana unit-unit gandaterletak padasatubangunantunggal atau padakawasanproperti, kompleks komersial, atau taman industri.

SUMBER: www.horrycounty.org/Portals/0/Docs/CodeEnforcement/.../LandDev.pdf‎

slide43

…Type of land development...

Pengembangan regional adalah:

Semua jenis pembangunan yang menghasilkan lebih dari 5.000 ADT (perjalanan rata-rata harian).

Pembangunanini dapat mencakup subdivisi, proyek multi-keluarga, pusat perbelanjaan atau mal, kompleks kantor, atau taman industri, dll.

SUMBER: www.horrycounty.org/Portals/0/Docs/CodeEnforcement/.../LandDev.pdf‎