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History 311. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Part II. Matter and Form Potentiality and Actuality Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality Five Elements Earth, Air, Fire, Water, Aether Fire – Hot & Dry Earth – Cold & Dry Air – Hot & Wet Water – Cold & Wet

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History 311


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history 311

History 311

THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

Part II

slide2

Matter and Form

Potentiality and Actuality

Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality

Five Elements

Earth, Air, Fire, Water, Aether

Fire – Hot & Dry

Earth – Cold & Dry

Air – Hot & Wet

Water – Cold & Wet

Aether – Divine Substance

Plato and Aristotle

slide3

Teleological View of World

As

Great Chain of Being

GOD

MAN

Nature

Essentially

Qualitative

slide4

Ptolemy

16th Century Illustration

of Ptolemy (2nd century)

Using Quadrant to Measure Angle Of Star Altitude

Uranius, Muse of Astronomy, in Background

slide7

Zodiacal Man

Parts of the Body Over Which the Specific Signs Have Particular Powers

slide8

Humoral Theory

    • Influence of Galen and Arabs
  • Basic Humors
    • Blood (hot) , Phlegm (cold), Yellow Bile (dry), Black Bile (wet)
  • Material Substances
    • Earth, Air, Fire, Water
slide9

Theory of Temperament

Pessimistic

Wet, Black Bile

Choleric

Dry, Yellow Bile

Sanguine,

Hot, Dry Blood

Plegmatic,

Cold, Wet phlegm

heliocentric worldview
Heliocentric Worldview

Copernicus

1473-1543

slide13

Plurality of Worlds

Infinite Universe

Rotation of the Earth

Infinite Universe of Four Elements

Burned at Stake in 1600

Giordano Bruno

1548-1600

slide14

Uraniborg Observatory in Denmark

Tycho Brahe

1546-1601

Supernova of 1572

slide15

Great Comet of 1577

Brahe’s Notebook on Comet

slide17

Astronomer and Astrologer

Emphasis on Mathematics

Accepts Heliocentric View

Elliptical Obits

Laws of Planetary Motion

Rejects Copernican View of

Perfect Orbits

Johannes Kepler

1571-1630

slide18

Kepler’s Three Mathematical Laws of Planetary Motion

The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci. Thus, Kepler rejected the ancient Aristotelean, Ptolemaic,and Copernican belief in circular motion.

A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time as the planet travels along its orbit. This means that the planet travels faster while close to the sun and slows down when it is farther from the sun. With his law, Kepler destroyed the Aristotelean astronomical theory that planets have uniform velocity.

The squares of the orbital periods of planets are directly proportional to the cubes of the semi-major axes (the "half-length" of the ellipse) of their orbits. This means not only that larger orbits have longer periods, but also that the speed of a planet in a larger orbit is lower than in a smaller orbit.

slide20

Gilbert’s terrella

Work on Magnets

William Gilbert

1544-1603

slide21

Starry Messenger , 1610

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, 1632

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

slide22

Galileo’s Sketch of the

Phases of the Moon

slide23

1857 Painting by Christiano Banti of Galileo Before the Roman Inquisition

Actual Trial in 1633