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What is Management ? Chapter 1 Review. Mr. Sherpinsky Business Management Class Council Rock School District. The Business World Today. Constant change! Technology Society Environment Competition Diversity. What is Management?.

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what is management chapter 1 review

What is Management?Chapter 1 Review

Mr. Sherpinsky

Business Management Class

Council Rock School District

the business world today
The Business World Today
  • Constant change!
    • Technology
    • Society
    • Environment
    • Competition
    • Diversity
what is management
What is Management?
  • Management:The process of deciding how best to use a business’s resources to produce good or provide services…
  • Organization’s Resources:
    • Employees
    • Equipment
    • Money
levels of management
Levels of Management
  • Senior management
    • Establishes the goal/objectives of the business
    • Decides how to use the company’s resources
    • Not involved in the day-to-day problems
    • Set the direction the company will follow
    • Board of Directors, CEO, COO, senior vice presidents
levels of management1
Levels of Management
  • Middle management
    • Responsible for meeting the goals that senior management sets
    • Sets goals for specific areas of the business
    • Decides which employees in each area must do to meet goals
    • Department heads, district sales managers
levels of management2
Levels of Management
  • Supervisory management
    • Make sure the day-to-day operations of the business run smoothly
    • Responsible for the people who physically produce the company's products or services
    • Forepersons, crew leaders, store managers
    • Also called “Line” managers
the management process
The Management Process

3 ways to examine how management works:

  • Tasks performed
    • Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling
  • Roles played
    • Set of behaviors associated with a particular job
    • Interpersonal, information-based, decision-making
  • Skills needed
    • Conceptual, human relations, technical
management tasks
Management Tasks
  • 5 Major Tasks Performed:
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Staffing
    • Leading
    • Controlling
the management process1
The Management Process
  • Planning
    • Decides company goals and the actions to meet them
      • CEO sets a goal of increasing sales by 10% in the next year by developing a new software program
the management process2
The Management Process
  • Organizing
    • Groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them
      • A manager sets up a team of employees to restock an aisle in a supermarket
the management process3
The Management Process
  • Staffing
    • Decides how many and what kind of people a business needs to meet its goals and then recruits, selects, and trains the right people
      • A restaurant manager interviews and trains servers
the management process4
The Management Process
  • Leading
    • Provides guidance employees need to perform their tasks
    • Keeping the lines of communication open
      • Holding regular staff meetings
    • One of the most important tasks of supervisory or line managers
the management process5
The Management Process
  • Controlling
    • Measures how the business performs to ensure that financial goals are being met
      • Analyzing accounting records
      • Make changes if financial standards not being met
    • One of the most important tasks of supervisory or line managers
management roles
Management Roles
  • Managers have authority within organizations
    • Managers take on different roles to best use their authority
      • Interpersonal roles
      • Information-related roles
      • Decision-making roles
mintzberg s management roles
Mintzberg’s Management Roles
  • Interpersonal roles
    • A manager’s relationships with people
      • Figurehead: Performs symbolic duties
      • Leader: Establishes work atmosphere and motivates subordinates
      • Liaison: Develops and maintains webs of contacts outside of the organization
mintzberg s management roles1
Mintzberg’s Management Roles
  • Informational-related roles
    • Provide knowledge, news or advice to employees
      • Monitor: Collect all types of information relevant and useful to organization
      • Disseminator: Gives other people the information they need to make decisions
      • Spokesperson: Transmits information to the outside world
mintzberg s management roles2
Mintzberg’s Management Roles
  • Decisional-making roles
    • Makes changes in policies, resolves conflicts, decides how to best use resources
      • Entrepreneur: Initiates controlled change in the organization to adapt to changing environment
      • Disturbance Handler: Deal with the unexpected changes
      • Resource Allocator: Makes decisions on the use of organizational resources
      • Negotiator: Deals with other organizations and individuals
mintzberg s findings
Mintzberg’s Findings
  • Mintzberg found that most managers are often placed into situations beyond their control such as:
    • Constant interruptions
    • Jumping from subject to subject
    • Problem to Problem
  • Rarely giving undivided or uninterrupted attention to anything for any length of time
management skills
Management Skills
  • All levels of management require a combination of conceptual, human relations, and technical skills
    • Conceptual skills most important at senior management level
    • Technical skills most important at lower levels
    • Human relations skills important at all levels
conceptual human relations and technical skills
Conceptual, Human Relations, and Technical Skills
  • Human Relation Skills
  • Need to work well together
  • Resolving conflicts
  • Forming partnerships

Conceptual Skills

  • Decision making planning, and organizing
  • Understanding how different businesses relate
  • Technical Skills
  • Abilities used to perform their job
  • Training people to use a new system
management skills1
Management Skills
  • Conceptual skills
    • Skills that help managers understand how different parts of a business relate to one another and to the business as a whole
      • Decision making, planning, and organizing
management skills2
Management Skills
  • Human relations skills
    • Skills managers need to understand and work well with people while forming partnerships
      • Interviewing job applicants, forming partnerships with other businesses, resolving conflicts
management skills3
Management Skills
  • Technical skills
    • The specific abilities that people use to perform their jobs
      • Operating various software applications
      • Overseeing things like: designing a brochure, training people to use a new budgeting system
history of management
History of Management
  • Knowledge is Power!
  • Even in life!
    • Where you’re going, where you’ve been!
    • Management is relatively a modern concept…
causes of the industrial revolution
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
  • Many people left their farms to work in factories
    • Professional managers supervised their work
  • Changes in technology, communication, and transportation
    • Telegraph and cable lines extended across the U.S. after the Civil War
    • Railroad lines, canals, roads, steamships
the break up of trusts
The Break-Up of Trusts
  • The Sherman Act, 1890
    • Made it illegal for companies to create monopolies
    • Intended to restore competition
    • Example
      • Standard Oil Company was broken into smaller companies so that other oil companies could compete with the former giant
      • John D. Rockefeller
frederick w taylor and scientific management
Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management
  • Father of Scientific Management
  • Wanted to find ways to motivate workers to work harder
  • To increase efficiency, he tried to figure “one best way” to perform a particular task
    • Used a stopwatch to determine which work method was most efficient
    • These time and motion studies lead to scientific management principles
the hawthorne studies of productivity
The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity
  • In the roaring 20s--Researchers began to look at the relationship between working conditions and productivity
  • Series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric in Cicero, IL
    • Lowered the lighting and expected to see productivity to fall
    • What happened?
    • Productivity increased…Why?
the hawthorne studies of productivity1
The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity
  • Researchers concluded that productivity rose because workers worked harder when they received attention
  • Hawthorne effect
    • Change of any kind increases productivity
  • Factors other than the physical environment affected worker productivity
    • Psychological and social conditions, effective supervision
the hawthorne studies of productivity2
The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity
  • Informal group pressures
    • Teaming tends to drive everyone not to let the others on the team down….
  • Individual recognition
    • Highlighting a worker contribution tends to motivate them to work harder
  • Participation in decision-making
    • When workers are part of the process they work harder
abraham h maslow and the hierarchy of needs
Abraham H. Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs
  • According to Maslow
    • All people have five basic types of needs
    • People fulfill lower-level needs before seeking to fulfill higher-level needs
      • One set of needs must be met before another is sought
      • “Hierarchy of needs” is his grouping and ordering of physical, security, social, status, and self-actualization needs
professional management
Professional Management
  • The professional manager (started in the 1930’s)
    • Defined: Career person who does not necessarily have controlling interest in the business but is paid to perform management functions
theory x
Theory X
  • Assumes that people are basically lazy and will avoid working if they can
  • Managers impose strict rules and make sure that all important decision are make only by them
theory y
Theory Y
  • Assumes that people find satisfaction in their work
  • Managers believe that people will work productively if put in the right environment
  • People are creative & will come up with good ideas if encouraged to do so
  • Employees given more freedom and allowed to make mistakes
theory z
Theory Z
  • William Ouchi, management researcher
  • Integrates Japanese and American business practices
    • Japanese emphasis on collective decision making and concern for employees
    • American emphasis on individual responsibility
    • Companies commit to people
centralization vs decentralization
Centralization vs. Decentralization
  • Centralization
    • The concentration of power among a few key decision makers
  • Decentralization
    • Process by which decisions are made by managers at various levels within an organization
women and minorities in management
Women and Minoritiesin Management
  • In the last four decades, the number of women and minorities have joined the workforce has tripled
    • Commonplace to hold positions at all levels of management in companies of all sizes (Well represented at all levels of management)
  • Women and minorities serve as the CEOs of prestigious businesses
    • PepsiCo, Kraft, Archer Daniels, Avon, Harpo, eBay, Lucent, Dupont, IBM, XEROX, Yahoo
women and minorities in management1
Women and Minoritiesin Management
  • Caucasian malesstill hold most senior management positions
  • Glass ceiling: the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the world of business
    • Steadily becoming a window of opportunity!
    • Global Influences
what is an entrepreneur
What is an Entrepreneur?

What do you think an Entrepreneur is????

  • Defined: People who own, operate, and take the risk of a business venture are called entrepreneurs.
  • These people are engaged in entrepreneurship:which is the process of running a business of one’s own.
  • Difference between professional managers and entrepreneurs: Boss/No Boss
employees vs entrepreneurs
Employees vs. Entrepreneurs
  • Entrepreneurs assume RISK!!!!
  • Employees are different than entrepreneurs, employees are people who work for someone else.
    • Entrepreneurs are directly affected by the outcomes of their decisions.
  • An Intrapreneur is an employee who is given funds and freedom to create a special unit or department within a company in order to develop a new product, process, or service
    • 3M utilized intrapreneurship to create Post-It notes
major concept
Major Concept
  • Management Principles should be followed except when they don’t fit a particular situation