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White Water to Blue Water WW 2 BW Greg Ruark, USDA National Agroforestry Center. Blue water – marine / estuary ecosystems. White water - terrestrial fresh water ecosystems. World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). Johannesburg, South Africa - 2002
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Greg Ruark, USDA National Agroforestry Center
Blue water –
marine / estuary ecosystems
White water -
terrestrial fresh water ecosystems
Johannesburg, South Africa - 2002
“triple bottom line”
(social, economic, environmental)
To stimulate partnerships that promote integrated watershed and marine ecosystem-based management in support of sustainable development
Antigua & Barbuda
European Econ. Comm.
Trinidad & Tobago
St. Kitts & Nevis
St. Vincent & Grenadines
NGOs and Private Sector
from 12 countries
Oxygen levels (<2mg/l)
In 1995, the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund petitioned Louisiana and the US EPA to convene a management conference under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act
…to address the serious threat to the resources and people of the Central Gulf of Mexico resulting from non-point nutrient pollution in the Mississippi River.
(14,000 sq km)
(5,000 sq km)
Soil Mineralization 31
N-fixing Legumes 21
Atmospheric Deposition 7
Feedlot Manure 6
About 8% of total is discharged into Gulf, mainly from cropland sources
(Mitsch et al. 2001)
Science and Practice
Coastal Goal: By the year 2015 reduce the 5-year running average spatial extent of the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone to less than 5,000 square kilometers
….a 30% reduction
Riparian Areas: Functions & Strategies for Management (2002)
… “restoration of riparian functions along America’s waterbodies should be a national goal.”
“ …because riparian areas perform a disproportionate number of biological and physical functions on a unit area basis, their restoration can have a major influence on achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and flood damage control programs.”
contiguous (paired) stream reaches
> organic matter processing
> pesticide degradation
> ammonia uptake
Stroud Water Research Center
A survey in 1878 by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture reported timberbelts containing oak, cottonwood, ash, hackberry, mulberry, and elm trees that ranged from 165-1320 feet in width (KSBA, 1878).