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White Water to Blue Water WW 2 BW Greg Ruark, USDA National Agroforestry Center. Blue water – marine / estuary ecosystems. White water - terrestrial fresh water ecosystems. World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). Johannesburg, South Africa - 2002

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slide1

White Water to Blue Water

WW2BW

Greg Ruark, USDA National Agroforestry Center

Blue water –

marine / estuary ecosystems

White water -

terrestrial fresh water ecosystems

world summit on sustainable development wssd
World Summit on Sustainable Development(WSSD)

Johannesburg, South Africa - 2002

  • 10-year anniversary of 1992 “Rio Earth Summit”
  • Overarching themes:

Implementation;

Poverty eradication

Integrated solutions

a major wssd outcome commitment to partnerships
A Major WSSD Outcome – Commitment to Partnerships
  • Voluntary and practical
  • Public / private collaboration
  • Integrated approaches…

“triple bottom line”

(social, economic, environmental)

www.un.org/esa/sustdev/partnerships

slide4

White Water to Blue Water

(WW2BW)

Objective:

To stimulate partnerships that promote integrated watershed and marine ecosystem-based management in support of sustainable development

initial focus wider caribbean region
Initial Focus: Wider Caribbean Region

Member States:

Antigua & Barbuda

Bahamas

Barbados

Belize

Colombia

Costa Rica

Cuba

Dominica

Dominican Republic

European Econ. Comm.

France

Grenada

Guatemala

Guyana

Haiti

Honduras

Jamaica

Mexico

Netherlands

Suriname

Trinidad & Tobago

United Kingdom

USA

Venezuela

Nicaragua

Panama

St. Kitts & Nevis

Saint Lucia

St. Vincent & Grenadines

slide6

4 Integrated Theme Areas

Sustainable

Tourism

Environmentally

Sound Marine

Transportation

Integrated

Watershed

Management

Marine

Ecosystem-based

Management

slide7

WW2BW International Steering Committee Members

Governments

  • Governments of the
  • Wider Caribbean Region
  • U.S.
  • U.K.
  • France
  • Netherlands
  • Canada

Int’l Organizations

  • UNEP-CEP
  • CCAD
  • CARICOM
  • ECLAC
  • UNEP-GPA
  • IBRD
  • UNDP
  • OAS
  • IOC-Caribe
  • PAHO
  • CEHI
  • FAO
  • IMO
  • CATHALAC

NGOs and Private Sector

  • IUCN
  • Environmental Defense
  • EcoLogic
  • Conservation International
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • Wildlife Conservation Society
  • PriceWaterhouseCoopers
  • Carib. Conservation Association

Universities

  • Univ. of the West Indies
  • Univ. of Delaware
  • Univ. of Rhode Island
  • Univ. of Miami
  • Earth University
ww2bw process
WW2BW Process
  • International Visiting Teams (IVTs)– visited 20 Wider Caribbean countries to encourage forming interagency “Country Teams” to participate in the Miami Conference
  • Country Teams –identify priorities and develop cross-sectoral partnerships and management strategies. Made up of representatives of various Ministries (e.g. Environment, Tourism, Agriculture, Finance, Fisheries, Forestry) and private and university partners.
ww2bw partnership conference
WW2BW Partnership Conference
  • Conference (March, 2004 – Miami, FL)
    • Over 700 attendees
  • Mechanism for new partnership development
  • Gathering of diverse regional partners
  • Education and training opportunities:
  • The Institute@WW2BW
    • 32 “how to” training courses offered by 56 instructors

from 12 countries

slide13

What/where is Gulf Hypoxia?

Dissolved

Oxygen levels (<2mg/l)

slide14

When did the issue surface?

In 1995, the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund petitioned Louisiana and the US EPA to convene a management conference under Section 319 of the Clean Water Act

…to address the serious threat to the resources and people of the Central Gulf of Mexico resulting from non-point nutrient pollution in the Mississippi River.

slide15

5-Year

Running Avg.

(14,000 sq km)

2015

Goal

(5,000 sq km)

slide18
Sources of Nitrogen in MRB

Percent

Fertilizers 31

Soil Mineralization 31

N-fixing Legumes 21

Atmospheric Deposition 7

Feedlot Manure 6

Municipal 1

Other 3

About 8% of total is discharged into Gulf, mainly from cropland sources

(Mitsch et al. 2001)

slide21
Connecting

Science and Practice

slide23

Coastal Goal: By the year 2015 reduce the 5-year running average spatial extent of the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone to less than 5,000 square kilometers

….a 30% reduction

slide24

Change farming practices

    • limit N application
    • avoid fall fertilization
    • reduce N-fixing crop acreage
    • improve manure management
    • utilize soil nitrogen testing
    • Mitsch et al. 2001, BioScience
slide25

Divert Floodwaters

    • to backwaters
    • to coastal wetlands
    • to riparian zones
    • Rather than relying on engineering to confine floodwaters to river channel
    • Mitsch et al. 2001
slide26

Create or Restore Wetlands

    • 5-13 million acres on existing farmland
    • especially adjacent to streams
    • Mitsch et al. 2001
slide27

Restore Riparian Forest Buffers

    • riparian forest buffers
    • bottomland hardwood forests
    • Mitsch et al. 2001
slide28

National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council

Riparian Areas: Functions & Strategies for Management (2002)

Recommendation:

… “restoration of riparian functions along America’s waterbodies should be a national goal.”

“ …because riparian areas perform a disproportionate number of biological and physical functions on a unit area basis, their restoration can have a major influence on achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and flood damage control programs.”

riparian forest buffers restore ecological processes that support living streams
Riparian Forest Buffers restore ecological processes thatsupport“living streams”

contiguous (paired) stream reaches

Forested Stream

> macroinvertebrates

> organic matter processing

> pesticide degradation

> ammonia uptake

Stroud Water Research Center

(PNAS 2004)

slide30

1991 satellite image of the Republican River in Cloud Co., Kansas

Historic Maximum

A survey in 1878 by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture reported timberbelts containing oak, cottonwood, ash, hackberry, mulberry, and elm trees that ranged from 165-1320 feet in width (KSBA, 1878).