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  1. Music A critical analysis of theory and practice in using the voice in creative music education

  2. What we taught and why lesson 1 • Introducing ‘tempo’ with an introductory activity and a visual aid metronome from www.sfskids.org. • Warm up – breathing, singing sausage and chips to scale. Boy chose bacon and ice cream for scale. • Activity one: Sing ‘My Bonnie lies over the ocean.” several times with actions, at a different tempo, emphasising the beat by clapping. • Activity two: children choose song to perform at different tempos to the class with actions. • Plenary: Children act as seeds growing at fast/slow tempos. 1 2 Please click to listen.

  3. What we taught and why lesson 2 • Using ‘jibber jabber’ song (on CD) – children identify different pitch with their hands • In circle – Mexican wave, copying different pitch • Sing ‘Once a Man Fell in a Well’ – reverse pitch • Activity two: Sing ‘Hands are meant to clap’ – put actions to song to highlight different pitches. • Plenary – Check children’s understanding by asking them questions Please click to listen

  4. Why teach music in the primary classroom? • What do children gain through high quality arts teaching and the effect on their mood? • How do songs effect children? • Music should be enhanced by the general education of pupils through appropriate experiences in and with music (Ernst & Charles, 1965).

  5. Why is music important? • Songs form part of our culture and provide a way of learning about other cultures (Johnston, Chater and Bell, 2002: p.191) • What is the long term effect of teaching primary school children music and why is it important? • Music as a tool.

  6. Why use voice in the Primary classroom? • The voice must be emphasised in the early days of making music, as an instrument in sound games. • ‘Each time a song is sung it will change according to the abilities and feelings of the singers and the context in which it is sung.’ (Hennessy cited in Wilson, 2009: p.138) • Progression from early to later stages.

  7. The importance of planning good music lessons • What and why should teachers plan? • Creating their own interpretations of music allows children to learn about the many ways in which musical material can be changed to give different meanings. (Hennessy, 2009)

  8. Planning • Ensures an enriching musical experience • Provides a framework for hands on teaching and learning • Encourages modelling of skills • Discourages too much talk. • Discourages inappropriate use of notation • Ensures progression (Open University Press, 2009)

  9. How children learn music? • Important theories for planning our music lesson. • Children learn by doing (Pound, 2005: p.22) • The benefits to learning music are many.

  10. Issues – The Sexes Is their musical rivalry between boys and girls? What do the experts suggest teachers can do to improve this opinion? (Bloom, 2010: p.26)

  11. How we assessed our music lessons? • How we assessed the children's voices and the effectiveness of the lesson content? • Why is it important for children to be assessed? • Other ways music can be assessed.

  12. Why did we use Formative assessment? • ‘Using assessment to help learning means that the students, the ones who do the learning, have information about where they are in their learning, what steps they need to take and how to take them.’ (Harlen, 2005, p.215) • Teacher assessments can be used to evaluate a wider range of achievement and learning outcomes than formal tests and examinations (Assessment Reform Group, 2006).

  13. How we worked as teachers • We ensured planning was efficient and included listening, performing and composing opportunities. • We attempted to plan for differentiation and inclusion by being flexible. • We allowed children to make decisions about what to do next and practice their own song to ensure a feeling of ownership

  14. Creativity • Fostering creativity in the classroom. • FLOW Psychology.

  15. Guilfords – Divergent Thinking • He believes intelligence and creativity are too separate things • What is divergent thinking and its characteristics.

  16. Bibliography • Auh, M. (1997) ‘Prediction of musical creativity in composition among selected variables for upper elementary students’ , Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 133, (1) pp. 1–8. • Barrett, M. (1996) ‘Children’s aesthetic decision-making : an analysis of children’s musical discourse as Composers’, International Journal of Music Education, 28, pp. 37–62. • Blacking, J. (1995). Music, Culture and Experience. University of Chicago Press, London. • Bloom, A. (12.02.10) “How singing hits a bum note for boys.” The Times Educational Supplement. • Brown, S. (2000a). The 'musilanguage' model of music evolution. In N. Wallin & B. Merker & S. Brown (Eds.), The origins of music, pp271-300. MIT Press,Cambridge, MA. • Brown, S. (2000b). Evolutionary models of music: From sexual selection to group selection. In F. Tonneau & N. S. Thompson (Eds.), Perspectives in Ethology 13:Behavior, Evolution and Culture, pp231-281. Plenum Publishers, New York. • Cheminais (2007) Every Child Matters: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Oxon, UK: David Fulton Publishers Ltd • Czikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience http://www.butler-bowdon.com/flow(accessed on 21/05/10).

  17. Bibliography • Dawson, J. (2003) 'Reflectivity, Creativity, and the Space for Silence', Reflective Practice, 4 (1) pp. 33 — 39 • Dogani, K. (2008) 'Using reflection as a tool for training generalist teachers to teach music', Music Education Research, 10 (1) pp. 125 — 139 • English, E. & Newton, L/ (2005) Professional Studies in the Primary School. London, UK: David Fulton Publishers Ltd • Ernst, K. D. & Charles, G. L. (1965) ‘Music in General Education’ http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED064285&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED064285 (accessed: 11/05/10) • Daniel, R. (2004) ‘Peer assessment in musical performance: the development, trial and evaluation of a methodology for the Australian tertiary environment’ British Journal of Music Education, 21 (1) pp.89 – 11 • DfES (2004) Removing Barriers to Achievement: The Government’s Strategy for SEN. Nottingham, UK: DfES • Gaston, E. T. (1968) Music in Therapy New York: Macmillan • Hagen, E. H., & Bryant, G. A. (2003). Music and dance as a coalition signaling system. Human Nature, 14(1), 21-51. • Harland, J. & Kinder, K. (2000) “What do the arts teach and what does best practice in arts teaching look like.” nferNEWS.

  18. Bibliography • Hallam, S. (2006) Music psychology in the classroom London: Institute of Education • Hallam, S., Price, J.& Katsarou, G. (2002) 'The Effects of Background Music on Primary School Pupils' Task Performance', Educational Studies, 28 (2)pp.111 — 122 • Hennesey, S. (2005) ‘Creativity in the Music Curriculum’ in Wilson, A. [ed] Creativity in Primary Education Exeter: Learning Matters • Hickey, M. (2003) Why and How to Teach Music Composition: A New Horizon for Music Education. Reston VA: MENC: The National Association for Music Education. • Hunter, D. (1999) ‘Developing peer-learning programmes in music: group presentations and peer assessment’ Cambridge University Press, 16 (1) pp.51-63 • Johnston, J. (2005) Early Explorations in Science. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press. • Johnston, J. & Chater, M. & Bell, D. (2002) Teaching the Primary Curriculum. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press • Kennedy, M. (1999) ‘Where does the music come from? A comparison case-stud y of the compositional processes of a high school and a collegiate composer’, British Journal of Music Education, 16, (1) pp. 157–177. • Kerry, (2005) The psychology of optimal experience http://www.educationreformbooks.net/flow.htm (accessed on 21/05/10). • Kratus, J. (1989) ‘A time analysis of the compositional processes used by children ages 7 to 11’, Journal of Research in Music Education, 37, (2) pp. 5–20.

  19. Bibliography • Merriam, A. P. (1964) The Anthropology of Music Evanston: Northwestern University. • Moore, A. (2000) Teaching and Learning: pedagogy, curriculum and culture, London, UK: RoutledgeFalmer. • New World Encyclopedia (2009) “J.P.Guilford.” http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/J._P._Guilford (accessed 21/04/10) • Open University (2009) ‘Making More of Music’ and the Key Stage 2 Music CPD Programme.” Buckingham, UK. Open University Press Ltd. • Peretz, I. (2003). Brain specialization for music: new evidence from congenital amusia. In I. Peretz & R. Zatorre (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of music, pp192-203. Oxford University Press, Oxford. • Pound, L. (2005) Ways of Learning: Learning Theories and Learning Styles in the Classroom. Oxon, UK: David Fulton Publishers Ltd. • Prentice, R. (2000) 'Creativity: a reaffirmation of its place in early childhood education', Curriculum Journal, 11 (2) pp.145 — 158 • Pritchard, A. (2005) Ways of Learning. Oxon, UK: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

  20. Bibliography • QCA (1999) Why is Creativity so Important? London, UK: QCA. http://curriculum.qca.org.uk/key-stages-1-and-2/learning-across-the-curriculum/creativity/whyiscreativitysoimportant/index.aspx (accessed 20/05/10) • Sing Up (2010) Teaching the music curriculum http://www.singup.org/magazine/article/ (accessed 12/05/10). • Soan, S. (2004) Additional Educational Needs: Inclusive Approaches to Learning. London, UK: David Fulton Publishers Ltd. • Swanwick, K. (1988) Music, mind, and education Routledge: London • Swanwick, K. & Tillman, J. (1986) “The sequence of musical development: A study of children's composition.” B.J. Music ed 3(3) pp.305 – 339. • Temmerman, N. (1997) ‘An investigation of undergraduate music education curriculum content in primary teacher education programmes in Australia’ International Journal of Music Education, Original Series, 30 (1) pp.26-34 • Tuck, K. (1995) Rhythm and Meter- Difficult to teach? http://www.ktpercussion.com/articles/article02rhythm.html(accessed 12/05/10) • Webster, P. (1989) Measure of Creative Thinking in Music (MCTM) Administrative Guidelines, Evanston: Northwestern University