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The History of Language. Old English. Version of English spoken in England over 1000 years ago. Extra letters Different sound values for letters. Different grammar (including cases). Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum, þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.

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old english
Old English
  • Version of English spoken in England over 1000 years ago.
  • Extra letters
  • Different sound values for letters.
  • Different grammar (including cases)
old english language example
Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum,

þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon,

hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.

What! We [of] Gar-Danes(lit. spear-danes) in yore-days,

[of] people-kings, trim(glory) apried(have learned of by asking or "prying"),

how those athelings(princes) arm-strong feats framed(made).

Old English Language Example
middle english spoken 1066 to mid 15 th century
Whan that Aprill with his shoures sote

The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote,

And bathed euery veyne in swich licour,

Of which vertu engendred is the flour;

When April with its sweet showers

has pierced the dryness of March to the root,

and bathed every vein in such liquor

from whose power the flower is engendered;

Middle EnglishSpoken 1066 to mid 15th Century
what does it mean

What does it mean?

Get out a piece of paper and write the numbers of the words and what you think their current translation is!

slide6
Art

Besought

Canst

Durst

Mere

Midst

Nary

Naught

Thou

Thee

Are

Asked

Can

Dare

Lake, pond, etc.

Middle

None

Nothing

You

You

why and how languages change
Why and How Languages Change:
  • Languages change, usually very slowly
  • Language changes due to power struggles and trade relationships
  • Fashion, trends and art influence word choice
  • Individual trademarks or character traits can define langauge
neologism
Neologism
  • a word, term, or phrase that has been recently created often to apply to new concepts or to reshape older terms in newer language form.
  • Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas that have taken on a new cultural context.
neologism as new speak
Neologism as New Speak
  • In 1984, modernized language is refered to as New Speak.
  • Each year major dictionaries focus on accepting new words into their editions.
  • Words are collected over the year and then reviewed by a board.
  • The boards will establish usage and demand to decide on whether the word is accepted.
neologism s from the 1950 s
deejay or d.j

Software

rock & roll

role model

fast food

Murphy’s Law.

Aerospace

Beatnik

Computerize

Data processing

Desegregate

Doublespeak

Geodesic dome

Hash browns

Junk mail

Neutron bomb

Polio virus

Sky diving

Weirdo

Neologism’s from the 1950’s
recent neologisms
bikini wax

brain freeze

Blog

flip flop

chick flick

Hottie

identity theft

dot-commer

designer baby

cyber war

ecological footprint

first responder

Microdermabrasion

Noogie

plasma screen

sky marshal

Potsticker

pole dancing

speed dating

Threequel

weekend warrior

Recent Neologisms
acronyms as neologisms acronyms in left answers in right
LCD

DDR

DVD

CD

VHS

SARS

FEMA.

Liquid Crystal Display

Dance Dance Revolution

Digital Versatile Disc

Compact Disc

Video Home System

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Federal Emergency Management Agency

Acronyms as Neologisms(Acronyms in left, answers in right)
slide14
Slang can be described as informal, nonstandard words or phrases which tend to originate in subcultures within a society.
  • The first slang came during the middle ages from a difference in dialects and regionalisms.
  • The English language was the most popular language with slang. Others, such as French and Latin, were protected.
  • The first slang words were focused on body parts and bodily functions.
where words come from
Where words come from…
  • Most words come from occupational groups, armed forces, teenagers, racial minorities, ghetto residents, labor unions, citizens-band radio broadcasters, sports groups, drug addicts, criminals, and even religious denominations.
military slang
Frocking:

An officer wearing an item of a higher position before official promotion.

Million Dollar Wound:

Wound serious enough to get sent home from combat, but not serious enough to permanently hurt you.

File 13:

A trash can.

Hooah:

Referring to or meaning anything and everything except no

Military Slang…
modern slang origins
Modern Slang Origins
  • The F Word
    • Urban Legend places it as ab abbreviation to “For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge” both in Irish lore and US Army lore. This is unfounded.
    • Linked to many languages
      • German- ficken (to copulate)
      • Dutch- fokken (to breed)
      • Norweigen- ukka (to copulate)
      • Swedish- fucka (to strike, copulate)
slang vs jargon
Slang vs. Jargon
  • Slang is an informal vocabulary composed of invented words, arbitrarily changed words, or extravagant figures of speech.
  • Jargon is professional, efficient shorthand.
    • Both vary from language to language and from group to group- but Jargon is an accepted variation of most languages. Slang is for the most part unacceptable in most languages.
what does the jargon term mean
20-20

hindsight

at the 11th hour

cake walk

Catch 22

in the black

pipe dream

to grandfather something

perfect knowledge but too late

at the last minute

easily accomplished

what ever you do, it won't work

Profitable

unrealistic, from opium smoking

grant exception to the rule due to preexisting status

What does the Jargon term mean?
jargon
Jargon
  • Varies from profession to profession.
  • Common Internet Jargon includes:

Blog - Bookmark - Browse - Cookie - Domain

Link - Plugin - USB

environmental jargon
Blackwater

carbon footprint

CFL

flat pack

green

LED

Water effluent containing fecal matter and urine - i.e. sewage

the amount of carbon dioxide emissions created by a person or industry

Compact Fluorescent Lamp

An increasingly popular way of producing goods that the end user assembles.

anything considered environmentally friendly

Light Emitting Diode

Environmental Jargon
as a class attempt this quiz

As a class attempt this quiz…

http://www.arcamax.com/vocabulary/q-1099