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Improving Content Area VOCABULARY Knowledge Using Academic Word Walls (AW 2 ). The Memphis Content Literacy Academy (MCLA) Session 4, Fall 2008. National Reading Panel’s “Big Five”. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading Fluency. #3 Vocabulary.

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improving content area vocabulary knowledge using academic word walls aw 2

Improving Content Area VOCABULARY Knowledge Using Academic Word Walls (AW2)

The Memphis Content Literacy Academy (MCLA)

Session 4, Fall 2008

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

national reading panel s big five
National Reading Panel’s“Big Five”
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Vocabulary
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Reading Fluency
3 vocabulary
#3 Vocabulary

Recognizing and understanding written vocabulary is essential to reading texts in science, mathematics, social studies, and the English/Language Arts. (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996; Reutzel & Cooter, 2005, 2008).

Children who come to school with thousands of “words in their head”—words they can hear, understand, and use in their daily lives—are already on the path to learning success (Allington & Cunningham, 1996).

Similarly… children who have small listening, speaking, and reading vocabularies—must receive immediate attention if they are to have any real chance at reading success.

-- National Research Council, 1998; Johnson, 2001; Reutzel & Cooter, 2005

there are four types of vocabulary
There Are Four Types of Vocabulary
  • Listening vocabulary, the largest,is made up of words we can hear and understand. All other vocabularies are subsets of our listening vocabulary.
  • The second largest vocabulary, speaking vocabulary,is comprised of words we can use when we speak.
  • Next is our reading vocabulary, words we

can identify and understand when we read.

  • The smallest is our writing vocabulary,

words we use in writing.

principles of effective vocabulary instruction
Principles of Effective Vocabulary Instruction

Principle 1:Vocabulary is learned best throughdirect,hands-on experience.

Principle 2: Teachers should offer bothdefinitionsandcontextduring vocabulary instruction.

Principle 3: Effective vocabulary instruction must include a depth of learning component as well as a breadth of word knowledge.

Principle 4: Students need to havemultiple exposuresto new reading vocabulary words.

what is an academic word wall aw 2
What is an Academic Word Wall (AW2 )?

Academic Word Walls or AW2are a new research-based procedure created in the federally funded Memphis Striving Readers Project for middle schools serving high poverty students.

Source: Tarasiuk (2007)

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

what is the purpose of academic word wall aw 2
What is the purpose of Academic Word Wall (AW2 )?

Based on the work of Patricia Cunningham (2000), AW2focuses students’ attention on important subject area words, and provide students with multiple exposuresto new vocabulary.

Source: Tarasiuk (2007)

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

why academic word walls aw 2
Why Academic Word Walls (AW2 )?

AW2help teachers accomplish the following:

  • increase students’ retention of new words,
  • improve their comprehension of assigned readings, and
  • boost writing performance on state tests and other measures.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

slide9

How many exposures to new words do students

need to learn them by heart?

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

what s wrong with traditional vocabulary instruction in academic classes
What’s wrong with traditional vocabulary instruction in academic classes?

Vocabulary study can be an effective means of improving students comprehension, but according to research…

…reading comprehension is not affected when students are provided word definitions alone.

…reading comprehension is not affected when methods are used that provided two or less meaningful exposure to words.

Stahl, S.A, & Fairbanks, M.M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta-analysis. Review of

Educational Research, 56, pp. 72-110.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

dictionary definitions can contain unfamiliar vocabulary
Dictionary definitions can contain unfamiliar vocabulary…

Agriculture: the science or occupation of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.

Q: Which of the above words would be hard for your students?

-Webster’s intermediate dictionary

-McKeown, M.G. (1985). The Acquisition of word meaning from context by children of high and low ability. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, pp.482-496.

-Scott, J.A., & Nagy, W.E. (1997). Understanding the definitions of unfamiliar verbs. Reading Research Quarterly, 32, pp. 184-200.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

slide12

Many textbook publishers still rely on traditional activities such as writing definitions, matching, and fill-in-the blanks activities that theresearch does not support.

-Harmon, J. M., Hedrick, W. B., & Fox, E. A. (2000). A content analysis of vocabulary instruction in social studies textbooks for grades 4-8. The Elementary School Journal, 100, pp. 253-271

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

glossary definitions aren t all that helpful either
Glossary definitions aren’t all that helpful either…

Agriculture: the business of farming

nor is context sufficient for struggling readers…

Agriculture, or the business of farming, was the major way of life in the English colonies.

-McKeown, M.G. (1985). The Acquisition of word meaning from context by children of high and low ability. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, pp.482-496.

Harmon, J. M., Hedrick, W. B., & Fox, E. A. (2000). A content analysis of vocabulary instruction in social studies textbooks for grades 4-8. The Elementary School Journal, 100, pp. 253-271

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

when should we use an academic word wall aw 2
Whenshould we use an Academic Word Wall (AW2 )?

AW2 should be used for teaching ALL essential vocabularyin your subject area (about 5 words per week).

Since AW2is a FLEXIBLE tool that can be used for a variety of student vocabulary activities, you should consider using it as a regular part of your daily teaching.

Most activities only take 5-15 minutes!

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

what words in our units of study should we include on the academic word wall
What words in our units of study should we include on the Academic Word Wall?

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

slide16

Level

Definition

Unknown

The word is completely unfamiliar and its meaning is unknown. (examples: entomologist, peninsula, bucolic)

Acquainted

The word is somewhat familiar; the student has some idea of its basic meaning. (examples: avoid, fortunate, adapt)

Established

The word is very familiar; the student can immediately recognize its meaning and use the word correctly. (examples: clock, cold, happy)

Levels of Word Knowledge

(National Reading Panel)

materials needed for aw 2
MATERIALS NEEDED FOR AW2
  • A “pocket chart” and easel
  • ALTERNATIVE TO POCKET CHART: A blank section of the classroom wall, a blank bulletin board, or a large white board; Large sheets of butcher paper
  • Card stock (approx. 5” x 8” each) for writing individual academic words, or sentence strips
  • Colored markers (dry erase markers for white boards)
  • Text and supplemental readings for your required unit of study

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

slide18

Source: region2.dadeschools.net

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

guidelines
Guidelines
  • Add words gradually, five a week
  • Make words very accessible by putting them where every student can see them, writing them in big, black letters, and using a variety of background colors so that the most often-confused words (there, their; what, when) are different colors
  • Be selective about what words go on the wall, limiting additions to those really common words which children use a lot in writing
  • Practice those words by chanting and writing them
  • Do a variety of review activities to provide enough practice so that words are read and spelled instantly and automatically
  • Make sure that Word Wall words are spelled correctly in any writing students do.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

here are some aw 2 activities you might try
Here are some AW2 activities you might try…

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

password
Password

Divide the class into two teams. One person from each team sits in a chair in front of the class. Those two people receive a card with a vocabulary word. The first person gives a one-word clue to his/her team. If no one from the team can guess, the second person gives a clue to his/her team. This alternates back and forth until someone from one of the teams guesses the word, or until a specified number of clues has been given.

Source: Kathleen S. Cooter (2008). E: kcooter@bellarmine.edu

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

drawing pictures
Drawing Pictures

This works well if you have an empty classroom nearby. Divide the class into two groups. Give each one a list of vocabulary words (idiomatic expressions also work well for this). The students draw pictures - but no words - on the board so that the students in the other group can guess the words or expressions they're trying to represent. This is a fun way to review some vocabulary and break up the class routine.

Source: Kathleen S. Cooter (2008). E: kcooter@bellarmine.edu

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

academic word walls tic tac toe
Academic Word Walls- Tic-Tac-Toe
  • Materials: Chalkboard or paper with the tic-tac-toe board drawn on it
  • Word Cards
  • Divide the class into X’s and O’s teams. Write words in the tic tac toe spaces. Take turns having a member of the team come up and selecting a space to read. If he is correct, they may put an X or O for their team. If they are incorrect, the other team gets to send a player to the board to try the same word. You can keep score if you want. You can already have these boards made up on overhead transparencies to save time and keep the game moving if you are using a variety of words, like the sight word list.
  • *You can also give everyone a blank copy of the tic tac toe board, and put the list of words on the board. Have them place the words where they want in their board. As you call the words out, you will have to say if it is an X word or an O. The first one to tic tac toe is the winner.

Source: Kathleen S. Cooter (2008). E: kcooter@bellarmine.edu

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

tic tac toe example
Tic-Tac-Toe Example

Parallel Lines

Heptagon

Algorithm

Isosceles Triangle

trapezoid

Tangent

Diagonal

Decahedron

Rhombus

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

unscrambled
Unscrambled
  • SOLID
  • ATOM
  • SCIENCE
  • BEAM
  • QUARK
word sorts
Word Sorts

Students group their words/cards into different categories with common features. During an open sort, students determine ways in which their vocabulary can be groups. This type of sort engages students in higher levels of thinking and processing. During a closed sort, students know in advance the categories in which they must place their cards.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

rapid reading
Rapid Reading

Research tells us that fluency can and should be practiced with familiar words.

  • Have pairs of children work together.
  • One child uses a pointer and goes down or across the column. The other child reads.

Or the child can take a copy of the word wall home and practice fluency with their family – put words on the “word refrigerator”!

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

hangman
HANGMAN

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q

R S T U V W X Y Z

What word is this?

mind reader
Mind Reader*

Mind Reader – a class favorite! In this game, the teacher thinks of a word on the wall and then gives five clues to that word. Have students number their paper 1-5 and tell them that you are going to see who can read your mind and figure out which of the words on the board you are thinking of. Tell them you will give them five clues. By the fifth clue, everyone should guess your word, but if they read your mind they might get it before the fifth clue.

  • For your first clue, always give the same clue: “It’s one of the words on the academic word wall.”
  • Students should write next to number one the word they think it might be.
  • The second clue is: It has to do with our solar system.
  • Student writes word.
  • The third clue is: It is very cold.
  • Student writes word
  • The fourth clue is: It has a tail.
  • Student writes the word.
  • The fifth clue is: There are many legends about these occasional visitors.
  • “I know you all have word next to number 5, what is it? But who has it next to number 4?, 3?, 2?, 1?” Some students will have read your mind and have it. Do several words in the same manner. As students get familiar with this activity they like to be the person giving the clues and having their mind read.

*Adapted from Cunningham, P.M. (1999). The Teacher’s Guide to the Four Blocks. N.C.:Carson-Dellosa.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

guess the covered word
Guess the Covered Word

The purpose of this activity is to help children practice the important strategy of cross-checking meaning with letter-sound information.

  • The teacher writes 4 or 5 sentences on board, sentence strips, or overhead. Cover a word in each sentence with two sticky notes--one covering the onset, the other covering the rime.
  • Call on a student to read the first sentence.
  • Students make several guesses for the covered word. Teacher writes the guesses on the board.
  • The teacher takes off the first sticky note that is covering the onset.
  • Guesses that don’t begin with that onset are erased and any new guesses can be added.
  • When all the guesses which fit both the meaning and the onset are written, the whole word is revealed.

Adapted from Cunningham, P.M. (1999). The Teacher’s Guide to the Four Blocks. N.C.:Carson-Dellosa.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

word search http puzzlemaker school discovery com http www puzzles ca wordsearch html
Word Searchhttp://puzzlemaker.school.discovery.comhttp://www.puzzles.ca/wordsearch.html
  • Create a Word Search worksheet to each student
  • Teacher chooses 5 words from the word wall.
  • As teacher calls out word, students chant and write on blank at bottom of worksheet.
  • When each word is found, trace around it with a colored pencil, pen or marker or use a highlighter to highlight the word found.

Adapted from Fountas, I.C. Pinnell, G.S.: (1998) Word Matters. N.H. Heinemann.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

flashlight fun
Flashlight Fun
  • Turn out the lights.
  • Say this poem together with the class: “Flashlight, flashlight, oh so bright, Shine on a word with your light.”
  • Shine the flashlight on individual words for the class to read, chant, and volunteer a definition in their own words.

Adapted from Gruber, B. (1998). Instant Word Wall High Frequency Words. CA:Practice & Learn Right Publications.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

analogies
Analogies
  • Using AW2 words create a variety of analogies such as “Defeat is to battle as failure is to _______.” with the word to fill the blank from the list.
  • The student can then come up with their own analogies and discuss their thinking.

Online Resource: www.freevocabulary.com/

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

frayer model http www worksheetworks com miscellanea graphic organizers frayer html
Frayer Model(http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers/frayer.html)

Char

Characteristics

glassy

clear colored

brightly colored

evenly shaped

patterened

glimmer, sparkle

Definition

A solid made of atoms arranged in an

ordered pattern.

Crystals

Examples

metals

rocks

snowflakes

salt

sugar

Non Examples

coal

pepper

lava

obsidian

Frayer, D., Frederick, W. C., and Klausmeier, H. J. (1969). A Schema for Testing the Level of

Cognitive Mastery. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Education Research.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

literacy is the gateway to social justice for our children kathleen spencer cooter
Literacy is the gateway to social justice for our children…- Kathleen Spencer Cooter

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008

teacher resources
Teacher Resources

Fisher, D., Brozo, W.G., et al. (2007). 50 Content area strategies for adolescent literacy. Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall/Pearson.

Marzano, R.J., & Pickering, D.J. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teacher’s manual.Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Reutzel, D.R., & Cooter, R.B. (2007). Strategies for Reading Assessment and Instruction: Helping Every Child Succeed, 3rd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Reutzel, D.R., & Cooter, R.B. (2008). Teaching children to read: The teacher makes the difference, 5th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall/Pearson.

Developed by R. B. Cooter & K.S. Cooter for MCLA Fall 2008