The Road to the Civil War Building Tensions. The Missouri Compromise (1820) Addressed two issues:. the expansion of slavery the balance of free and slave states Conditions Maine enters the Union as a free state Missouri enters the Union as a slave state
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The Road to the Civil War Building Tensions The Missouri Compromise(1820)Addressed two issues: • the expansion of slavery • the balance of free and slave states • Conditions • Maine enters the Union as a free state • Missouri enters the Union as a slave state • Slavery will be prohibited in new states or territories north of 36°30’ latitude
The Road to the Civil War Building Tensions Manifest Destiny and Expansion 1840s belief that Americans were destined expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean
The Road to the Civil War Building Tensions Acquiring Oregon and Texas Texas • Texas congress approved annexation and Texas became the 28th state in December 1845. Oregon • Britain and the United States signed a treaty in 1846 dividing Oregon at the 49th parallel.
The Road to the Civil War Building Tensions The Mexican Cession • This land included the present day states of California, Nevada, and Utah. It also included most of Arizona, New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. • Gadsden Purchase • $10 million • Included southern Arizona and New Mexico
The Debate over Slavery The New Territories and Slavery Expansion • Additional territories renewed the debate over slavery expansion • upset balance of free and slave states
The Debate over Slavery The New Territories and Slavery Expansion • Wilmot Proviso (1846) – proposal to outlaw slavery in the territory added to the United States by the Mexican Cession • Sectionalism – devotion to a region rather than the entire country
The Debate Over Slavery The Mexican War and Slavery Expansion • began push for popular sovereignty • popular sovereignty –allow voters in a particular territory to decide whether to ban or permit slavery
The Debate Over Slavery Compromise of 1850 • Proposed by Henry Clay; supported by Daniel Webster
The Debate Over Slavery Compromise of 1850 • Conditions of the Compromise of 1850 • California joins the Union as a free state. • New Mexico and Utah Territories will use popular sovereignty to decide the status of slavery. • Stronger fugitive slave law passed. • Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C. • Border dispute between New Mexico and Texas is resolved.
The Debate Over Slavery (continued) Compromise of 1850 • Opposition to the Compromise of 1850 • Allowing California to enter as a free state would destroy the balance between the two sections of the country. • California would be admitted unconditionally. • Support for the Compromise of 1850 • Preserving the Union was more important than regional differences. • Slave labor was not necessary to the West’s economy.
The Debate Over Slavery Controversy in the North over the Fugitive Slave Act • lacked trial by jury • bribes were given to government officials for support
Trouble in Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act • Introduced by Stephen Douglas • Conditions • Kansas & Nebraska Territories are created • 36° 30’ discontinued • Kansas & Nebraska will use popular sovereignty to determine whether to be a free or a slave state • protested in the North • received strong support in the South
Trouble in Kansas Bleeding Kansas • Territorial Elections • 1000s of men crossed over from Missouri to vote • Pro-slavery forces won & passed strict pro-slavery laws • Anti-slavery Kansans formed their own government • Pro-slavery forces attacked Lawrence, the anti-slavery capital
Trouble in Kansas Bleeding Kansas • Pottawatomie Massacre (1856) • John Brown and seven other men murdered pro-slavery Kansans • Kansas collapsed into civil war • Approximately 200 people were killed
The Effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Raid on Harpers Ferry • Oct. 16, 1859 • John Brown planned a raid on a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA • Hoped to distribute weapons to slaves • Slaves did not join revolt • White Southerners attacked & killed some of the raiders • John Brown captured & convicted of treason, murder, & conspiracy • Hung Dec. 1859
Effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act . Political Divisions • Know-Nothing Party formed in 1849 • Supported measures making it difficult for foreigners to become citizens and hold office • Republican Party formed in 1854 • Whigs, some Democrats, Free-Soilers, and abolitionists who joined together to oppose the spread of slavery in the West
Political Divisions Dred Scott • Dred Scott a slave who lived in free territory and then returned to slave territory. • sued for his freedom claiming he had become free when he lived in free territory. • In 1857 the Supreme Court declared: • African Americans were not U.S. citizens. • The Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery was unconstitutional. • Congress did not have the right to ban slavery in any federal territory.
Political Divisions Abraham Lincoln’s and Stephen Douglas’ Differing Views on Slavery • Abraham Lincoln opposed slavery and supported the equal rights for slaves. • Stephen Douglas supported slavery and did not feel the African Americans were equal.
Secession Reactions to John Brown’s Raid • Some mourned his death and regarded him as a hero. • Others opposed his violence. • Southerners felt threatened. • It raised the secession issue in the South.
Secession Factors Leading to Lincoln’s Victory in the Presidential Election of 1860 • Lincoln won 180 of the 183 electoral votes in the free states. • The slave states split their electoral votes thus giving Lincoln the victory.
Secession Reasons the Southern States Left the Union • believed Lincoln would abolish slavery • feared this action would destroy the South’s economy and society • South Carolina seceded Dec. 1860 • Feb. 1861 Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, & Texas seceded • Confederate States of America elected Jefferson Davis as president