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Unit 4 . Migration & Industrialization. Chapter 13. Changes on the Western Frontier. Section 1: Cultures Clash on the Prairie The desire for land and gold caused many Americans to seek fortune out west.

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unit 4

Unit 4

Migration & Industrialization

chapter 13

Chapter 13

Changes on the Western Frontier


Section 1: Cultures Clash on the Prairie

  • The desire for land and gold caused many Americans to seek fortune out west.
  • When gold was discovered in Colorado, many Americans migrated into the Great Plains (The Great American Desert).
  • In 1864, 150 Cheyenne were massacred by Colonel John Chivington resulting in numerous conflicts on the Great Plains between settlers and Native Americans.
  • When gold miners entered the Sioux’s sacred Black Hills, Crazy Horse ambushed a US regiment killing 100 soldiers. This resulted in the Treaty of Fort Laramie.
  • The Treaty of Fort Laramie ended disputes in the Black Hills and created a reservation for the Sioux along the Missouri River.

Four years after the Fort Laramie Treaty, settlers began seeking gold. Colonel Custer sent his troops to the Black Hills and met an Indian force led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse at Little big Horn. Custer and his men were slaughtered. A few months later, part of Custer’s old regiment caught up with 350 Sioux at Wounded Knee. 300 of the Sioux were murdered.

  • In an attempt to “Americanize” Native Americans, the US offered the Dawes Act. The reservation would be divided up amongst Native American families. The remainder of the land would be sold to settlers and the Indians would get the money. In the end, most of the land was sold to whites and Native Americans received little to no money.
  • When 25,000 Native Americans gathered at Wounded Knee to perform a ghost dance, Sitting was shot & killed by a Native American police force working for the US government. In the aftermath, all the Native Americans except for 350 Sioux fled. The remaining Sioux were involved in the massacre at Wounded Knee

Section 2: Settling on the Great Plains

  • Due to fertile farmland, the Great Plains is where most farmers looked to settle.
  • When land grants were given to RRs, the west began to industrialize and many Indians lost their land.
  • When the Homestead Act was passed, many settlers and prospectors moved into Indian land. Also, a group known as the Exodusters developed.
  • With more settlement out west, inventions and improvements in farm technology developed. This led to the invention of the the steel plow by John Deere and the reaper by Cyrus McCormick. Later, the invention of barbed wire fencing led to the demise of the American cowboy.
  • The Morrill Act and the Hatch Act paved the way for the development of agricultural colleges and experiment stations to further develop the west.

2. Hardships of farmers in the Great Plains included:

  • Machinery was too expensive for small farmers
  • Bonanza farms drove down prices and small farmers could not compete
  • RR companies catered to large farms
  • Most farmers went into debt and lost their land to bonanza farms and RR companies

Section 3: Farmers and the Populist Movement

  • In the late 1800s, farmers faced increasing costs and decreasing crop prices.
  • Farming became unprofitable to small farmers because they could not compete with large farms.
  • Because of large farms, many farmers supported free silver because it would increase the money supply and raise crop prices.
  • In 1892, farmers and farm organizations, such as Grange, found support in Populism and the People’s Party.
  • 3. The economic reforms of the People’s Party included…
  • An increase in the money supply
  • A graduated income tax
  • A federal loan program
  • 8 hour workday

4. The political forms of the People’s Party included…

    • Direct election of US senators
    • Single terms for President and Vice
    • Restrictions on immigration
    • Secret ballot voting
  • In 1896, the Populists supported presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan
  • 5. The factions that opposed Bryan were those who wanted gold as the metal basis for the nation’s money supply, business owners and bankers of the industrialized northeast.
  • 6. As a result of this election, the Populist party and democratic party split votes allowing for the Republican candidate William McKinley to win the election.
chapter 14

Chapter 14

A New Industrialized Age


Section 1: The Expansion of Industry

  • After the Civil War, the US was still mostly a rural nation. However, by the 1920s, It had become the leading Industrial nation in the world. This change was caused by three factors:
  • Abundant natural resources
  • Increasing number of inventions
  • Expanding urban population
  • Factor A
  • Black Gold & Steel
  • Edwin Drake use a steam engine to drill for oil
  • The Bessemer process developed a way to melt steel
  • Metal was used to build RRs, bridges, and skyscrapers

Factor B

  • Edison developed electrical power
  • George Westinghouse developed uses for electricity into products
  • Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter and created new jobs
  • Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson invented the phone
  • Factor C
  • Provided markets for new inventions and industrial goods
  • Provided a ready supply of labor for industry

Section 2: The Age of Railroads

  • Railroads were critical to the settlement of the west and development of the nation. Because of this, the federal government made huge land grants and loans to the railroad companies.
  • The three benefits of government money to the RR’s included:
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • Jobs and settlement opportunities
  • New towns & markets
  • 3. The drawbacks included price fixing, poor working conditions, government corruption (land swindling), and problems with Indians.
  • 4. In 1877, the Supreme Court ruled in Munn v. Illinois that states had the right to regulate RR rates for the benefit of small farmers and consumers.
  • 5. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 weakened the authority of states’ ability to regulate RR rates. This occurred because the SC ruled states could not regulate RR rates of interstate commerce.

Section 3: Big Business & Labor

  • As a result of the federal government’s lack of regulation on big business (known as Laissez-faire), the following results occurred:
  • Growth of political machines
  • Pollution
  • Poor working conditions
  • Decline of small business
  • 2. To protect themselves from unfair labor practices, workers formed the following unions:
  • AFL—American Federation of Labor—Samuel Gompers—Crafts Union
  • ARU—American Railway Union—Eugene Debs—for both skilled & unskilled
  • IWW—Industrial Workers of the World—William Haywood—included all workers, even African Americans
  • Knight of Labor—Uriah Stephens—8 hour workday, equal pay for equal work

In order to deal with growing consumer concern, the government passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 which made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with trade between states and other countries.

  • As a result of the practices of Robber Barons, the following strikes occurred:
  • Great Strike of 1877—Workers of the B&O RR protested wage cuts. After more than a week, President Hayes ordered the workers back to work saying they were impeding interstate commerce.
  • The Haymarket Affair—Chicago workers protest police brutality that occurred at the McCormick Harvester Plant. The strike resulted in seven dead police officers & several strikers. 8 strikers were arrested, four were hanged, one committed suicide, and three ended up in prison.
  • The Homestead Strike—First steelworkers strike (Carnegie Plant in PA). Company president, Henry Frick brought in pinkertons to bust up strike. 12 total people died before the strike lost support and the National guard was sent in. It ended after 45 days.
  • The Pullman Company Strike—Strike resulted from ½ the workers being laid off, and the other receiving a pay cut from 25-50%. Most workers lived in the town owned by Pullman, but rent not prices in the town were reduced. In the end, Eugene Debs was jailed and most of the workers were fired and blacklisted.
chapter 15

Chapter 15

Immigrants & Urbanization


Section 1: The New Immigrants

  • When immigrants came to this country in the late 1800s and early 1900s, they were required to enter through Ellis Island or Angel Island.
  • 2. Old immigrants came from Western Europe while new immigrants arrived from Eastern Europe and Asia.

3. Immigration caused the following problems:

  • Overcrowded Cities
  • Rise of pollution and crime
  • Prejudice and racism
  • Anti-Asian sentiment
  • Growth in power of big business 
  •  4. In trying to limit immigration Congress passed two laws:
  • Chinese Exclusion Act—From 1882-1943, Chinese immigration was limited to students, teachers, merchants, and government officials.
  • Gentlemen’s Agreement—President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to end the San Francisco segregation order if Japan would limit emigration of unskilled workers to the US.

Section 2: Challenges of Urbanization

  • Lack of safe & efficient transportation—improvements in mass transit were made including the introduction of street cars.
  • Unsafe drinking water—Filtration systems were introduced in the 1870s, and by 1908, chlorination developed.
  • Sanitation—Cities began to fund sanitation departments.
  • Fire Hazards—Cities began to fund fire departments, fire hydrants were introduced, and wood buildings were replaced with brick, stone, or concrete.
  • Crime—Cities began funding a salaried police force.

Section 3: Politics in the Gilded Age

  • The Gilded Age was the era in American history when, on the surface, the United States looked like a booming country and a great place for opportunity and life. However, if you scratch the surface, the United States was a place that included corrupt politics, poor working and living conditions, and filled with hatred towards businesses and immigrants.
  • As a result of Gilded Age practices, the federal government sought to improve the ugly conditions within the United States
  • The ugly conditions of the Gilded Age included:
  • Corruption of political machines
  • Unfair labor practices
  • Unfair working conditions
  • Crime & pollution
  • Unfair living conditions
  • Prejudice and racism
  • City violence
chapter 16

Chapter 16

Life at the Turn of the 20th Century


Section 1: Science & Urban Life

  • There were many technological changes that affected American life at the turn of the 20th Century. Analyze those changes by completing the chart below.
  • Skyscraper—The designer was Louis Sullivan and these building were constructed with steel & concrete. These buildings solved the problem of expensive and limited space.
  • Electric Transit—made possible by the inventions of Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse as they developed ways to harness electrical energy. This began to solve the problems of overcrowded city street and the sanitation problems that resulted in horse droppings.
  • Urban Planning—Frederick Law Olmstead—with improvements in transportation and power, American cities began to grow with a planned picture, alleviating the problems of the growing population.

Airmail—Orville & Wilbur Wright—commissioned a four cylinder internal combustion engine which paved the way for our first flight on 12/17/1903. By 1920, the US government established a postal system by mail allowing better communication w/in our country.

  • Web-perfecting Press—Christopher Sholes—With 90% of Americans reading by 1890, American Mills began to produce large quantities of paper in order to make books, magazines, etc. This new printing press used electrical power to print on both sides, cut, fold, and count pages automatically, thus allowing cheaper reading materials to be produce for Americans to read.
  • Kodak Camera—George Eastman—The Kodak company allowed you to send pictures by airmail to their plant in Rochester, NY. Now Americans could carry a camera with them and a whole new world of business was opened.

Section 2: Expanding Public Education

  • Elementary Schools—From 1865-1895, 12-16 weeks of school for children between 8-14 with the curriculum being reading, writing, and arithmetic. Teachers were allowed to use physical punishment and many parents did not send their kids to school. BY 1900, 3000 private kindergartens emerged for parents who needed daycare.
  • High Schools—High school was optional until about 1920. For those who did go (mostly white males), the curriculum was expanded to include science, civics, and social studies.
  • College & Universities—By 1880 only about 2% of students enrolled in college. By 1920 it was about 10%. Since colleges were private, only the wealthy could afford them. By the late 1920s, state universities had established themselves, making it easier and less expensive for students to go onto higher learning.
  • Education for Immigrant Adults—These schools were mostly established to teach working traits. Usually, these schools were established by big businesses in order to secure cheap labor.

Since many African Americans were denied an equal education, two men established schools specifically for African Americans

  • Booker T. Washington—Believed racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society. As a result, Washington started the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. Here, African Americans learned skills in agricultural, domestic, and mechanical work.
  • W.E.B Dubois—1st African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard. He founded the Niagara Movement that sought to help African Americans could seek a liberal arts education. Dubois wanted to have well educated role models so future blacks could achieve at higher levels.

Section 3: Segregation & Discrimination

  • Literacy Test—Test given to African Americans in which they needed to pass to vote.
  • Poll Tax—annual tax that had to be paid before qualifying to vote.
  • Grandfather Clause—You were allowed to vote if your father or grandfather could vote.
  • Jim Crow Laws—laws that allowed for separation based on race (segregation).
  • Chinese Exclusion Act—Limit on the number of Chinese allowed to enter the US.
  • Debt Patronage—A system that bound laborers into slavery if they were unable to pay off a debt to their employer.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson—1896 Supreme Court case that legalized segregation as long as it was equal. “Separate but Equal.”

Section 4: The Dawn of Mass Culture

  • Amusement Parks—These parks had picnic areas, rides like roller coasters and Ferris wheels.
  • Bicycling—Bikes had been around since 1816, but they did not become safe until 1885. By 1890, there were 312 bike shops across the US.
  • Boxing—One of America’s 1st sports became a widely popular spectator sport by the early 1900s.
  • Baseball—1845 baseball became a club sport, by the mid 1860s more than 50 baseball clubs existed throughout America, the National League formed in 1876 and the American League in 1900. IN 1903, the Boston Pilgrims beat the Pittsburgh Pirates in the 1st World Series.
  • Shopping Centers—Retail shopping districts developed close to mass transit areas.
  • Department Stores—Developed by Marshall Field. An idea where a store sold various products in mass quantities.
  • Chain Stores—The first chain was Woolworth.
  • Mail-order Catalogs—Order by mail. RFD (Rural free Delivery) brought packages directly to your home.