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Topic 2 – Transportation and the Spatial Structure. Historical Geography of Transportation Transport and Spatial Organization Transport and Location Future Transportation. A – Historical Geography of Transportation I. 1. Transportation in the Pre-Industrial Era (pre 1800s)

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Topic 2 – Transportation and the Spatial Structure


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topic 2 transportation and the spatial structure

Topic 2 – Transportation and the Spatial Structure

Historical Geography of Transportation

Transport and Spatial Organization

Transport and Location

Future Transportation

a historical geography of transportation i
A – Historical Geography of Transportation I

1. Transportation in the Pre-Industrial Era (pre 1800s)

2. The Industrial Revolution and Transportation (1800-1870)

3. Emergence of Modern Transportation Systems (1870-1920)

1 transportation in the pre industrial era pre 1800s
1. Transportation in the Pre-Industrial Era (pre 1800s)
  • Limited transport technology
    • No mechanized forms of transportation.
    • High friction of distance.
    • Harnessing animal labor and wind.
    • Isolation and limited long distance trade.
    • Existing long distance trade:
      • Reliance on maritime and fluvial transportation.
      • High value commodities along established trade routes(e.g. Silk Road).
  • Transportation and empire building
    • Roman Empire (road network, 80,000 kilometers, 200 AD).
    • Chinese Empire (canal system, 2,500 kilometers).
roman road network 200 ad
Roman Road Network, 200 AD

Atlantic

Ocean

Black Sea

Adriatic Sea

Mediterranean Ocean

Red Sea

500 km

grand canal system china
Grand Canal System, China

Beijing

  • The Grand Canal
    • Achievement of Imperial hydrological engineering.
    • First segments completed around 602 AD (Sui Dynasty).
    • At its peak during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 AD).
    • Totaled about 2,500 kilometers, 1,700 still in use today.
    • Grain distribution through the empire, notably its capitals.

Tonghui Canal

(Yuan)

Yellow Sea

Yongji Canal

(Sui and Yuan)

Old course of

the Yellow River

(Song)

Jiao-Lai Canal

(Yuan)

Jizhou Canal

(Yuan)

Yongji Canal

(Sui)

Jizhou

East China

Sea

Tongji Canal (Sui)

Luoyang

Kaifeng

Huaiyin

Bian Canal

(Song)

Chuzhou

Yangzhou Canal

(Song and Yuan)

Yangzhou

Jiangnan Canal

(Sui, Song and Yuan)

Suzhou

400 km

Hangzhou

1 transportation in the pre industrial era pre 1800s1
1. Transportation in the Pre-Industrial Era (pre 1800s)
  • European expansion
    • Mastery of sailing and artillery.
    • Eastern trade route:
      • Discovered by Portugal.
      • Cape of good hope reached by 1481.
      • Gama (1497-99) first to reach India.
      • China reached by 1513.
    • Western trade route:
      • Discovered by Columbus (1492).
      • Failed to reach Asia (America discovered).
      • Cabot tried (1497), but also failed.
      • Magellan (1519-22) successful to round the world.
    • Establishment of colonial empires.
2 the industrial revolution and transportation 1800 1870
2. The Industrial Revolution and Transportation (1800-1870)
  • Mechanization of transportation
    • Steam engine (as a water pump).
    • First steamship on the Delaware river (1790).
    • Eventually lead to the development of railways.
  • Regular maritime routes
    • Notably over the North Atlantic (Europe – North America).
    • The era of clipper ships:
      • Fast cargo ships used for intercontinental trade (Asia, Europe, America).
    • The emergence of the steamship:
      • Savannah (first to cross the Atlantic in 1820).
      • Great Britain (first steel and helix propelled ship, 1844).
    • Accurate navigation charts (1850s):
      • Prevailing winds and sea current used to the advantage of navigation.
2 the industrial revolution and transportation 1800 18701
2. The Industrial Revolution and Transportation (1800-1870)
  • Land transport systems
    • Serious problems of land transportation.
    • Roads were commonly unpaved and could not be used to effectively carry heavy loads.
    • Attempts to develop toll road systems (Turnpikes in UK).
  • Freight shipping canals
    • Bridgewater Canal, Britain (1761).
    • Erie Canal, New York (1825).
    • Linking different segments of fluvial systems into a comprehensive waterway system.
    • Fluvial barges.
    • Lowered significantly land transport costs.
    • Permitted initial industrialization.
2 the industrial revolution and transportation 1800 18702
2. The Industrial Revolution and Transportation (1800-1870)
  • Railway systems
    • First commercial rail line in 1830 (Manchester-Liverpool; 40 miles).
    • Access to national resources and markets:
      • The triumph of inland transportation.
      • First urban systems.
    • End of the canal era:
      • Many canals fell into disrepair.
      • Unable to compete with the speed and flexibility of rail.
      • Only the most strategic links were kept.
    • From a point-to-point to an integrated rail system:
      • Large companies.
      • Standard gauge.
    • Standard times zones (1884)
3 emergence of modern transportation systems 1870 1920
3. Emergence of Modern Transportation Systems (1870-1920)
  • Growth of international transportation
    • Shift from coal to oil in ships:
      • Reduce their energy consumption by a factor of 90%.
    • Increase in ship size (no longer limited by wood).
    • Construction of the Suez and Panama canals.
  • Dominance of the rail transport system
    • By the early 20th century, most systems reached their peak.
    • Overinvestment and over development.
    • A phase of decline then began.
3 emergence of modern transportation systems 1870 19201
3. Emergence of Modern Transportation Systems (1870-1920)
  • Modern urban transportation
    • Increase in urban population.
    • Introduction of tramways (1880; horse drawn, and then electric).
    • Urban sprawl and the specialization of economic functions.
    • Underground metro systems in large cities (London, 1863).
    • Bicycle (1867); cheap mobility for the masses.
  • Modern telecommunications
    • Telegraph (1844).
    • Associated with the growth of railways and international shipping.
    • Business transactions became more efficient.
    • Creation of standard times zones (1884).
    • Every continent was linked by telegraphic lines (1895).
a historical evolution of transportation ii
A – Historical Evolution of Transportation II

1. Transportation in the Fordist Era (1920-1970)

2. A New Context for Transportation : the Post-Fordist Era (1970-)

1 transportation in the fordist era 1920 1970
1. Transportation in the Fordist Era (1920-1970)
  • Internal combustion engine
    • Diesel engine (1885).
    • Extended flexibility of movements.
    • Fast, inexpensive and ubiquitous transport modes (cars, buses and truck).
  • Mass production system
    • Applied by Ford for car manufacturing.
    • Ford Model T: about 14 million Ford Model T were built (1913-1927).
    • Increased demand for oil products and other raw materials (steel and rubber).
1 transportation in the fordist era 1920 19701
1. Transportation in the Fordist Era (1920-1970)
  • Economies of scale
    • Mass consumption of resources.
    • Bulk commodities such as minerals and grain over long distances.
    • Oil Tankers.
  • Propelled flight
    • Wright brothers (1903).
    • Commercial air transport service between England and France (1919).
    • Expansion of regional / national air transport services (1920s-1930s).
    • Douglas DC-3 (1935).
    • First commercial jet plane (Boeing 707; 1958).
comparison between a contemporary and second world war tanker
Comparison between a Contemporary and Second World War Tanker

Modern VLCC (305 m)

1975

1942

T2 Tanker (153 m)

1 transportation in the fordist era 1920 19702
1. Transportation in the Fordist Era (1920-1970)
  • Telecommunications
    • Mass market media.
    • Telephone (1878).
    • Radio (1920):
      • First radio shows: to sell radios.
    • Television (1950).
  • Automobile
    • Massive diffusion (1950s).
    • Greater customization of vehicles.
    • Suburbanization and expansion of cities.
2 a new context for transportation the post fordist era 1970
2. A New Context for Transportation : the Post-Fordist Era (1970-)
  • Telecommunications
    • Merging with information technologies.
    • Information highway (Internet).
    • Growth in processing power of computers:
      • Moore’s law.
      • Number of transistors per integrated circuit would double every 18 months.
    • Satellite communications.
    • Wireless networks.
2 a new context for transportation the post fordist era 19701
2. A New Context for Transportation : the Post-Fordist Era (1970-)
  • Globalization of trade
    • Fragmentation of the production.
    • International division of labor.
    • The principle of “just-in-time”.
    • Development of logistics.
  • Containerization
    • Increased flexibility of freight transport.
    • First containership, Ideal-X (1956).
    • Cellular containerships (1967).
  • Massification of air transport
    • Boeing 747 (1969).
2 a new context for transportation the post fordist era 19702
2. A New Context for Transportation : the Post-Fordist Era (1970-)
  • High-speed train networks
    • Shinkansen, Japan (1964).
    • TGV, France (1981).
  • Globalization of car manufacturing
    • Three major players, US, Germany and Japan.
    • New producers (Korea).
    • 80% of oil consumption attributed to road transportation.
  • Growing transport constraints
    • Innovations in transport modes.
    • Reduction of energy consumption.
    • Alternative sources of energy.