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Barriers to Learning. Systemic Societal Pedagogics Medical Disabilities. COMPILED BY: K KITSHOFF SCP: LSEN SCHOOLS. Systemic Barriers. Lack of basic and appropriate learning support materials Lack of assistive devices Inadequate facilities at schools Overcrowded classrooms

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Barriers to learning
Barriers to Learning

  • Systemic

  • Societal

  • Pedagogics

  • Medical Disabilities

COMPILED BY: K KITSHOFF

SCP: LSEN SCHOOLS


Systemic barriers
Systemic Barriers

  • Lack of basic and appropriate learning support materials

  • Lack of assistive devices

  • Inadequate facilities at schools

  • Overcrowded classrooms

  • Lack of mother tongue educators


Societal barriers
Societal Barriers

  • Severe Poverty

  • Late enrolment

  • Gangs/Violence in neighbourhoods

  • Natural disasters and Epidemics

  • Crime, abuse, teenage pregnancy

  • Gender issues

  • Attitudes


Barriers to learning

NUTRITION

SHELTER

CLINICS

EMOTIONAL

STRESS

POVERTY

TRANSPORT

WATER

TOILETS

ELECTRICITY


Inappropriate pedagogy
Inappropriate Pedagogy

  • Insufficient support of educators

  • Inflexible Curriculum

  • Inappropriate and unfair assessment procedures


Curriculum
CURRICULUM

  • Policy Implementation

  • Content of LP

  • Subject Choices

  • Class management and organisation


Sensory disabled hearing

Deaf - loss greater than 65 db

Hard of Hearing - hearing loss between 35 and 65 db

Prelingually deaf

Postlingually deaf

Unilateral/Bilateral

Sensory Disabled - Hearing


Sensory disabled vision

Blind - no vision, light perception, shape

Low Vision - few centimeters away

Visually Limited 20/70 to 20/200

Visual Acuity

Visual Field

Poor eye movements

Colour perception

Sensory Disabled - Vision


Barriers to learning

DEAF-BLIND LEARNER

Alternative Communication


Cerebral palsied cp
Cerebral Palsied (CP)

  • Damage to the brain - before, during or shortly after birth. (Central Nervous System)

  • Muscular system and co-ordination of limbs affected

  • Intellectual potential

  • Speech impediments


Cerebral palsied

Monoplegic - 1 limb

Hemiplegic - same side of body - arm, leg and face. Arm more than the leg.

Triplegic - 3 limbs. Mostly both legs and 1 arm.

Quadruplegic - both arms and legs.

Diplegic - both arms and legs, but legs much worse.

Paraplegic - only legs, no harm to arms.

Cerebral Palsied


Cerebral palsied1
Cerebral Palsied

  • Spasticity: increased muscle tone - tight and overactive - jerky/slow

  • Athetosis: muscle tone fluctuates - limbs flailing/difficult to control

  • Ataxia: lack of coordination - poor control of balance and movement - poor depth perception/ position in space


Barriers to learning

MEMORY

STRATEGIES

FOR

LEARNING

MOTOR

ABILITY

ATTENTION

SOCIAL

BEHAVIOUR

PERCEPTION

LEARNING DISABILITIES

MATHS

ORAL

LANGUAGE

READING

WRITTEN

LANGUAGE


Barriers to learning

Vitality

Mobility

Varying

Loss/Lack

Syndrome

Birth

Medical

diagnosis

Medication

Physically Disabled


Skeletal disorders
Skeletal Disorders

  • Dwarfism

  • Marfin Syndrome

  • Brittle Bone

  • Diseases: Poliomyelitis & Tuberculosis of the Bone Structure

  • Clubfoot

  • Absence of Limbs

  • Amputations

  • Contractions


Muscular weakness
Muscular Weakness

  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy

  • Spina Bifida

  • Spinal Cord Injuries


Barriers to learning

Chronically Sick

Constant

change

in

condition

Pain

discomfort

medication

Uncertainty

about

Outcome


Chronic acute health problems
Chronic & Acute Health Problems

HEART

CONDITIONS

TB

RHEUMATIC

FEVER

ASTHMA

HEMOPHILIA

LEAD

POISONING

LEUKEMIA

KIDNEY

FAILURE

DIABETES


Barriers to learning

BURSTS OF

ELECTRICAL

ENGERGY

ALTERED

ELECTRICAL

STATE

LOSS OF

CONSCIOUSNESS

ELECTRICAL

IMPULSE

NORMAL

SIGNS &

SYMPTYMS

GONE

ALL FUNCTIONS

NORMAL

ANY AGE

EPILEPSY

NO APPARENT

CAUSE

SYMPTOM OF

UNDERLYING

PROBLEMS

OUTGROW



Terminally ill
Terminally Ill

  • Cancer

  • HIV-Aids

  • Cystic Fibrosis

  • Central Nervous System

  • TB

  • Hepatitis B

  • Protein Energy Malnutrition


Cognitive diversities

COGNITIVE DIVERSITIES

Intellectually Severely Disabled

Mild

Moderate

Profound

Severe


Characteristics accompanying behaviour of gifted learners
Characteristics & accompanyingbehaviour of gifted learners

  • Theoretical and abstract - ignores stressed data in assignments - works unneat

  • Independent, inventive - resists chosen assignments

  • Sensitive - withdraws, strong goal orientated and rejected by others

  • Alert and Eager - resents periods of classroom inactivity


Gifted continued
Gifted - Continued

  • Intuitive - Easily sees conclusions without displaying knowledge of sequential concepts

  • Daydreaming - concentrated periods of thinking - inattentive to teacher ‘s and other students’ comments and class discussions.

  • Aesthetically oriented - resists participation of active team sports


Learner with barriers biggest problems
Learner with BarriersBiggest problems:

  • Poor self concept

  • Negative attitude

  • Poor motivation


Barriers to learning1
BARRIERS TO LEARNING

  • For more Information:

  • Kobie Kitshoff

  • WCED: SCP LSEN Schools

  • kkitshof@pawc.wcape.gov.za

  • http://curriculum.wcape.school.za/barriers