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Ionic Nomenclature

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  1. Ionic Nomenclature

  2. Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds • Name to Formula • 1. Write the cation first (include charge) • 2. Write the anion second (include charge) • 3. “Swap and drop” the charges to determine how many of each ion are needed • 4. Make sure the total charge of the compound is 0 • (The final formula will NOT have + or – in it.) • 5. Rewrite the formula without charges

  3. Example: Lithium oxide • Lithium oxide • 1. Cation (including charge): Li+ • 2. Anion (including charge): O2- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Li+ O2- • Li+2 O2-1 • Li2O “Oxide” ends in –ide and is not found on the polyatomic ion chart. We know the charge is 2- because of where oxygen is found on the periodic table. The formula is neutral: Li: +1 x 2 = +2 charge O: -2 x 1 = -2 charge 0 total charge There is are two lithium cations and one oxide anion.

  4. Example: Barium nitrate • Barium nitrate • 1. Cation (including charge): Ba2+ • 2. Anion (including charge): NO3- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Ba2+ NO3- • Ba2+1 NO3-2 • Ba(NO2)2 “Nitrate” is a polyatmic ion whose name you should have memorized. The formula is neutral: Ba: +2 x 1 = +2 charge NO3: -1 x 2 = -2 charge 0 total charge There is one barium cation and two nitrate anions. The parentheses show that there are two nitrate ions.

  5. Example: Aluminum sulfate • Aluminum sulfate • 1. Cation (including charge): Al3+ • 2. Anion (including charge): SO42- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Al3+ SO42- • Al3+ 2 SO42- 3 • Al2(SO4)3 “Sulfate” is a polyatmic ion whose name you should have memorized. The formula is neutral: Al: +3 x 2 = +6 charge SO4: -2 x 3 = -6 charge 0 total charge There are two aluminum cations and three sulfate anions. The parentheses show that there are three sulfate ions.

  6. Example: Sodium chloride • Sodium chloride • 1. Cation (including charge): Na+ • 2. Anion (including charge): Cl- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Na+ Cl- • Na+1 Cl-1 • NaCl “Chloride” ends in –ide and is not found on the polyatomic ion chart. We know the charge is 1- because of where chlorine is found on the periodic table. The formula is neutral: Na: +1 x 1 = +1 charge Cl: -1 x 1 = -1 charge 0 total charge There is one sodium cation and one chloride anion.

  7. Example: Aluminum oxide • Aluminum oxide • 1. Cation (including charge): Al3+ • 2. Anion (including charge): O2- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Al3+ O2- • Al3+ 2 O2- 3 • Al2O3 “Oxide” ends in –ide and is not found on the polyatomic ion chart. We know the charge is 2- because of where oxygen is found on the periodic table. The formula is neutral: Al: +3 x 2 = +6 charge O: -2 x 3 = -6 charge 0 total charge There are two aluminum cations and three oxide anions.

  8. Example: Ammonium nitrate • Ammonium nitrate • 1. Cation (including charge): NH4+ • 2. Anion (including charge): NO3- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • NH4+ NO3- • NH4+1 NO3- 1 • NH4NO3 “Ammonium” and “nitrate” are polyatmic ions whose names you should have memorized. The formula is neutral: NH4: +1 x 1 = +1 charge NO3: -1 x 1 = -1 charge 0 total charge There isone ammonium cation and one nitrate anion. Parentheses are not needed because there is only one of each polyatomic ion.

  9. Example: Calcium hydroxide • Calcium hydroxide • 1. Cation (including charge): Ca2+ • 2. Anion (including charge): OH- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Ca2+ OH- • Ca2+1 OH- 2 • Ca(OH)2 “Hydrocide” is a polyatmic ion whose name you should have memorized. The formula is neutral: Ca: +2 x 1 = +2 charge OH: -1 x 2 = -2 charge 0 total charge There is one calcium cation and two hydroxide anions. The parentheses show that there are two hydroxide ions.

  10. Example: Barium chloride “Chloride” ends in –ide and is not found on the polyatomic ion chart. We know the charge is 1- because of where chlorine is found on the periodic table. • Barium chloride • 1. Cation (including charge): Ba2+ • 2. Anion (including charge): Cl- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Ba2+ Cl- • Ba2+1 Cl- 2 • BaCl2 The formula is neutral: Ba: +2 x 1 = +2 charge Cl: -1 x 2 = -2 charge 0 total charge There is one barium cation and two chloride anions.

  11. Example: Magnesium oxide • Magnesium oxide • 1. Cation (including charge): Mg2+ • 2. Anion (including charge): O2- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Mg2+ O2- • Mg2+2O2-2 • Mg2O2 • MgO “Oxide” ends in –ide and is not found on the polyatomic ion chart. We know the charge is 2- because of where oxygen is found on the periodic table. The formula is neutral: Mg: +2 x 2 = +4 charge Cl: -2 x 2 = -4 charge 0 total charge The smallest possible ratio is 1:1, not 2:2. There is one magnesium cation and one oxide anion.

  12. Example: Lead (II) nitride The Roman numeral tells us that lead has a charge of +2. “Nitride” ends in –ide and is not found on the polyatomic ion chart. We know the charge is -3 because of where nitrogen is found on the periodic table. • Lead (II) nitride • 1. Cation (including charge): Pb2+ • 2. Anion (including charge): N3- • 3. Swap and drop charges: • Pb2+N3- • Pb2+3 N3- 2 • Pb3N2 The formula is neutral: Pb: +2 x 3 = +6 charge N: -3 x 2 = -6 charge 0 total charge There are three lead (II) cations and two nitride anions.

  13. Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds • Formula to Name • 1. Determine the charge of the cation (+) • 2. Determine the charge of the anion (-) • 3. Write the name of the cation • Use element name or polyatomic cation name • Include Roman numeral if necessary • D-block • NOT Ag+, Cd2+, or Zn2+ • 4. Write the name of the anion • -ide or from the polyatomic ion chart

  14. Example: Sr(ClO2)2 Anion charge: ClO2 has a charge of -1. It is a polyatomic ion. There are two of them so the -1 charge balances out the 2+ charge of Sr2+. Name: Chlorite Cation charge: Sr has a charge of 2+. We know this because it is located in Group 2 on the periodic table. Name: Strontium Sr(ClO2)2 • Strontium chlorite Strontium does NOT need a Roman numeral because it is found in the s-block. Only d-block elements and some p-block elements need Roman numerals.

  15. Example: CuCl Anion charge: Cl has a charge of -1. We know this because it is located in Group 17 on the periodic table. The name will end in –ide. Name: Chloride Cation charge: Cu is found in the d-block and can form more than one ion. Its charge in this compound will be +1 to balance Cl-. Name: Copper (I) CuCl • Copper (I) chloride Copper DOES need a Roman numeral because it is found in the d-block. The +1 charge tells us what Roman numeral to use.

  16. Example: Pb(NO3)2 Anion charge: NO3 has a charge of -1. It is a polyatomic ion. There are TWO of them for a total negative charge of -2. Name: Nitrate Cation charge: Pbis found in the lower-left p-block and can form more than one ion. Its charge in this compound will be +2 to balance the two NO3- ions. Name: Lead (II) Pb(NO3)2 Lead (II) nitrate Lead DOES need a Roman numeral because it is found in the lower-left p-block. The +2 charge tells us what Roman numeral to use.

  17. Example: Pb(NO3)3 Anion charge: NO3 has a charge of -1. It is a polyatomic ion. There are THREE of them for a total negative charge of -3. Name: Nitrate Cation charge: Pbis found in the lower-left p-block and can form more than one ion. Its charge in this compound will be +3 to balance the two NO3- ions. Name: Lead (III) Pb(NO3)3 Lead (III) nitrate Lead DOES need a Roman numeral because it is found in the lower-left p-block. The +3 charge tells us what Roman numeral to use.

  18. Example: KI Anion charge: I has a charge of -1. We know this because it is located in Group 17 on the periodic table. The name will end in –ide. Name: Iodide Cation charge: K has a charge of +1. We know this because it is located in Group 1 on the periodic table. Name: Potassium KI Potassium Iodide Potassium does NOT need a Roman numeral because it is found in the s-block. Only d-block elements and some p-block elements need Roman numerals.