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Latino Family Engagement: How to Effectively Engage and Connect with Latino Parents and Youth Diana Urieta and Andrew Behnke. The Rundown. Demographics and Culture Case Studies Parent Empowerment Resource List Next Steps. Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003).

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slide1

Latino Family Engagement:How to Effectively Engage and Connect with Latino Parents and Youth Diana Urieta and Andrew Behnke

slide2

The Rundown

  • Demographics and Culture
  • Case Studies
  • Parent Empowerment
  • Resource List
  • Next Steps
slide3

Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003)

  • Germany – 8.9%
  • Canada – 18.2%
  • Switzerland – 20.0%
  • Australia – 22.8%
  • Costa Rica – 24.9%
  • Kuwait – 44.1%

Source: OECD Factbook: Axiss Australia.

2006- Faith Action International House

slide4

Foreign-Born Population in Other Countries (2003)

  • Germany – 8.9%
  • Canada – 18.2%
  • Switzerland – 20.0%
  • Australia – 22.8%
  • Costa Rica – 24.9%
  • Kuwait – 44.1%

Source: OECD Factbook: Axiss Australia.

2006- Faith Action International House

  • USA – 12.4%
what factors push immigration
What Factors “Push” Immigration
  • Pushed out by poverty
  • Pushed out by violence
  • Pushed out by natural disasters

What Factors “Pull” Immigration

  • Shrinking labor pool – unfilled jobs
  • International competitive pressure on wages
  • Natural disasters requiring reconstruction
  • Family reunification

Source: 2006- Faith Action International House

u s population today in millions
U.S. Population Today in Millions

(Migration Policy Institute, 2006; Pew Hispanic, 2007)

u s latino population today in millions
U.S. Latino Population Today in Millions

(Migration Policy Institute, 2006; Pew Hispanic, 2007)

nc latino population
1990 = 56,667 = 1.1%

2000 = 378,963 = 4.7%

2007 = 643,333 = 7.1%

2009 = ???? = ???

Births to Latinos increased by 1208% from 1990 to 2006.

The number went from 1,754 in 1990 to 21,202 in 2006 or 17% of births.

NC Latino Population

(NC Vital Statistics, 2008; Census; 2007)

distribution of latinos across n c
Distribution of Latinos Across N.C.

Kasarda, J. D., and Johnson, J. H.(2006).

slide12
Commonalities and Diversity

Immigrants from over 42 countries

One size does not fit all

Language

Acculturation

Generation Status

SES

Life history

Latino Family Diversity

characteristics of latino culture
Characteristics of Latino Culture
  • Relationships: Personalismo
  • Language and communication
  • Family: Familismo
relationships personalismo
Relationships: Personalismo
  • Personal relationships are more important than institutional relationships.
  • Trust is placed in individuals, not in institutions.
  • Learn about the community and context in which people live, and get to know people as individuals on a one-to-one basis.
language and communication
Language and Communication
  • 41.8% of Latinos in NC speak English very well (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006)
  • Determine the Spanish literacy level and English proficiency level of the families you are working with.
  • Check to see if the message was understood by asking questions related to the issue
language and communication1
Language and Communication
  • Latinos tend to avoid confrontation
  • Respect is shown by listening when a person is talking, by following his/her advice, and sometimes by looking down
  • Expect to be seen as an authority figure in learning situations.
  • Use cooperative activities rather that competitive activities
language and communication personal space
Language and Communication:Personal Space
  • Latinos tend to sit and stand close to each other. “Touching” is a gesture of friendship, i.e. kiss on the cheek to say “hello” and “good bye.”
  • Be prepared to “share” your personal space. You don’t need to sit closer or kiss someone to say “hello” if that is not your preference.
family familismo
Family: Familismo
  • Family needs are a priority
  • Live in extended family groups. Children typically live at home until they get married. Family members care for elderly members and children
  • Prefer activities that involve all family members
  • In U.S. Latinos may lose the support provided by the extended family. As a result of this, there may be a shift in gender roles and change in roles of parents and children
family familismo1
Family: Familismo
  • If working with Latino youth, plan on meeting his/her family.
  • Invite families to appropriate activities and events. Consider that extended family may also attend.
  • When invitations are for specific family members, be sure that the message is clear and explain why the invitation is limited.
slide20

Teachers in Mexico

  • Seen as high ranking members of society, on par with doctors, lawyers and priests.
  • Children are taught to respect teachers and not to question them
slide21

Parental Involvement

  • Families see their essential role as ensuring that children have food, clothing, shelter and that they are socialized into the norms and expectations of the family.
  • Above all, they expect children to acquire “Buena educación” or good manners (Delgado-Gaitan & Trueba, 1991)
  • Going into a classroom and questioning a teacher’s style or methods is not a common practice.
education in mexico
Education in Mexico
  • Free up to 9th grade.
  • Basic classes: Math, Social Studies, Science/Biology, Spanish, History, Geography, Chemistry, and English.
  • Those that can’t afford to continue their education look for work or immigrate to the U.S.
education in mexico1
Education in Mexico
  • Schedule differences / uniforms
  • No school services such as free lunch, special education or school nurse
  • Parent-teacher relationships not generally encouraged
slide24
Latino families must cope with the values and expectations of two very distinct cultures as they navigate their way through the multifaceted educational system.

They must deal with an unfamiliar system powerful enough to alter their relationships with their children, their extended families, and the communities where they live.

Culture Clash

slide25

Potential Hispanic HS Students in NC

56000

4500

(Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education [WICHE], 2003)

slide26

Academic Achievement and Dropout Issues

  • In 2006, 44% - 52% of all H.S. Latinos did not graduate in 4 years in NC
  • Latino dropout rate is improving
    • still the highest large ethnic group
  • Currently, only about 3% of NC university students are Latino

(Laird, DeBell, & Chapman, 2006; NCDPI, 2009; WICHE, 2003)

slide27

Recent Trends in NC Latino population

  • Latino boys are struggling more than any other group – African American boys next.
  • More than half of North Carolina's Latino girls are expected to be pregnant before their 20th birthday.

(Hess, 2000; Zuniga, 2004)

slide28
Grades and Attendance Issues

Working / Family Obligations

Generational Poverty

Marry Young / Childbirth

Gangs / Delinquency / Drugs

Limited Higher Education Opportunities

Why Do Latino Students Leave School?

(NCDPI, 2009; Perriera, 2007)

how dropouts hurt north carolina
Dropouts =

Annual cost of $7.5 Billion in lost earnings

Aggregate of $712 Million in tax revenue

Lost State Income Tax Revenue $995

Incarceration Costs $1,946

Medicaid Costs $1,496

Annual Public Cost per Dropout $4,437

(Gottlob, 2007)

How Dropouts Hurt North Carolina
slide30

Latino Parents & Academics

  • Parental involvement has consistently been shown to be related to these outcomes(e.g., Delgado-Gaitan, 1992, 1994; Flouri & Buchanan, 2004; Gutman, Sameroff, & Eccles, 2002; Plunkett & Bámaca-Gómez, 2003)
  • In fact, parent involvement was found the single strongest predictor of Latino academic performance(Zuniga, 2004)
slide31

Challenges for

Immigrant

Families

Language/Literacy

Unfamiliar

and intimidating

systems

Immigration Status

Life Factors

Mental Health Issues

Work

schedules

Child care

Media/Public Opinion

Transportation

slide32

Suggestions for Parents

  • Read to their child.
  • Discuss the day’s events.
  • Help with homework and special projects.
  • Limit television viewing time.
  • Watch TV with their children and talk about program messages.
slide33

Connecting with the Hispanic Community and Building Trust

  • Can be a slow process
  • Listening and observing
  • Establishing presence in the community: attending fiestas,events
  • Talking with members of the community/identify leaders
slide34

Recruiting Parents

“Latinos are not looking for a handout but for a handshake”

  • Personally extend invitations through visits or phone calls.
  • Use (Spanish) radio spots to announce the meeting and/or program.
slide35

Recruiting Parents

  • Do presentations or hold information meetings at churches, other community organizations’ meetings, school parents’ nights:
    • Introduce your organization’s mission and goals and how they benefit families. They may have never heard of “afterschool programs”
  • “Word of mouth” better than flyers
slide36

Engaging Parents

  • Acknowledge and value the families’ strengths.
    • Resilience
    • Resourcefulness
    • Nurturance and support of extended family
    • High educational expectations for their children

(Behnke et al., 2005; Delgado-Gaitan, 1992; Henderson & Mapp, 2002)

slide37

Engaging Parents

  • Consult with parents about best time to meet: be flexible.
  • Remember fútbol, telenovelas, local events.
  • Make things less formal
    • Fun activities: role play, videos.
  • Provide resources in Spanish.
slide38

Engaging Parents

  • Allow them to interact
  • Make a warm and comfortable environment
  • Extend the invitation to all family members. Appeal to parents and to children
    • If possible provide childcare transportation, food, prizes.
slide39

Engaging Parents

  • Recruit parents as advocates, mentors, and volunteers
    • Ask active parents to recruit others
  • Involve parents in committees and advisory councils
  • Have interpreters, bilingual volunteers.

.

(Barbour & Barbour, 2001; Delgado-Gaitan, 1992, 1994; Epstein, 1995; Epstein & Salinas, 2004; Machado-Casas, 2005; Scribner, Young, & Pedroza, 1999; Valdes, 1996)

slide40

Remember…

  • Do not get discouraged if outcomes are not what you expected, try again!
    • Building trust is a process that takes time
slide41

Next Steps

  • What is one thing you can do that will improve your effectiveness with Latino parents and youth?
  • What additional training or support do you need?
slide43

North Carolina Resources

  • Adelante Education Coalition:www.adelantenc.org;

Melinda Wiggins, Student Action With Farmworkers

919 660-3616 or mwiggins@duke.edu

  • El Pueblo:

www.elpueblo.org;

Tony Asion, Executive Director

919 835-1525 or tony@elpueblo.org

slide44

North Carolina Resources

  • College Foundation of NC:

Donna Weaver, Spanish Services Coordinator

336-256-0470 or dlweaver@uncg.edu

  • NC Society of Hispanic Professionals:

www.TheNCSHP.org

Marco Zarate, President

919 467-8424 or mailbox@TheNCSHP.org

slide45

Hispanic/Latino Organizations

  • NABE: www.nabe.orgNational Association of Bilingual Education
  • LULAC: www.lulac.org League of United Latin American Citizens
  • MALDEF: Mexican American Legal Defense & Education Fund, www.maldef.org
  • Nation Council of La Raza: www.nclr.org
  • Pew Hispanic Center:www.kff.org/kaiserpolls/pomr012604nr.cfm
  • A Dream Deffered: http://adreamdeferred.org/
slide46

Any Questions?

  • Sue Rosman

srosman@cisnc.org

919 832-2700

  • Andrew Behnke

andrew_behnke@ncsu.edu

919 515-9156

¡Gracias y Buena Suerte!