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Ch. 8 Warm-Up

Ch. 8 Warm-Up

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Ch. 8 Warm-Up

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  1. Ch. 8 Warm-Up • What is another name for joints? • What are the 2 main functions of joints? • What do you think are the most common joint injuries?

  2. Ch. 8 Warm-Up John bent over to pick up a dime. What was the type of joint and the movement that occurred at: • his hip joint • at his knees, and • between his index finger and thumb?

  3. Ch. 8 Warm-Up • Tony fell asleep in class, and when he woke up, he let go with a big yawn. To his horror, he couldn’t close his mouth – his lower jaw was “stuck” open. What happened? • What is the cause of Lyme disease? • How you determine by looking at someone suffering from arthritis has OA or RA?

  4. Joints Chapter 8

  5. Joints (or articulations) • Where two or more bones meet • Functions: movement, hold skeleton together • Classified by structure (or function): • Fibrous (synarthroses): immovable joint • Cartilaginous (amphiarthroses): slightly movable • Synovial (diarthroses): freely movable

  6. Fibrous Joints • No movement • Located: • Sutures: bones of skull held together by connective tissue fibers • Between teeth & jaws

  7. Cartilaginous Joints • Bones united by cartilage • Located: • Epiphyseal plates • Rib & sternum • Pubic symphysis

  8. Synovial Joints • Bones separated by fluid-containing joint cavity • Synovial fluid reduces friction between cartilages • Menisci: fibrocartilage that partially divides a joint cavity at knee, reduces friction • Bursa: flattened sacs containing synovial fluid, occur where bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, skin rub together

  9. Lateral & Medial Meniscus

  10. Torn medial meniscus

  11. Bursa (fluid-filled sac that cushions between bones & tendons/muscles

  12. Types of Synovial Joints • Plane– wrist • Hinge– elbow, ankle, fingers • Pivot– ulna/radius • Condyloid(ellipsoidal) – wrist, knuckle • Saddle– thumb • Ball-and-socket – shoulder, hip

  13. Types of Synovial Joints

  14. Types of Synovial Joints Types of Synovial Joints

  15. Joint Movement • Every skeletal muscle attached to bone or connective tissue at 2+ points • Origin: attached to immovable (less movable) bone • Insertion: attached to movable bone

  16. Types of Synovial Joint Movement • Gliding • Angular movements • Rotation

  17. 1. Gliding • Flat bone slips over another • Back-forth, side to side • Eg. Between vertebrae, wrist, ankle

  18. 2. Angular Movement • Increase or decrease angle between bones Types: • Flexion:  angle between bones (bend knee) • Extension:  angle along sagittal plane, straighten limbs, (unbend knee) • Abduction: “moving away” from midline along frontal plane (spread apart fingers) • Adduction: “move toward” midline (arm moving in) • Circumduction: make “cone” in space (pitcher winding up to throw ball)

  19. Flexion:  angle between bones

  20. Extension:  angle along sagittal plane, straighten limbs

  21. Hyperextension

  22. Abduction – Adduction - Circumduction

  23. 3. Rotation • Turn bone along long axis • Eg. Hip, shoulder, swivel head (C1/C2)

  24. Special Movements • Radius & Ulna: • Supination: bones are parallel, anatomical position • Sup- = “soup bowl” • Pronation: bones form an X, relaxed position • Pro- = pro-basketball player dribbles

  25. Special Movements • Elevation/Depression: and (shrug, chewing)

  26. Special Movements • Foot: inversion (medially)/eversion (laterally)

  27. Special Movements • Ankle: dorsiflexion (toes point up)/plantar flexion (toes point down)

  28. Special Movements • Jaw: protraction(jut out)/retraction (bring back in)

  29. Special Movements • Thumb: opposition (touch to other fingers on hand)

  30. Joint Disorders • Arthritis(joint inflammation) • Osteoarthritis: wear-and-tear, degeneration • Rheumatoid arthritis: chronic inflammation, autoimmune • Gout: uric acid deposits in soft tissue of joints • Sprain: ligaments stretched or torn • Dislocation: bones forced out of alignment • Bursitis: inflammation of bursa • Tendonitis: inflammation of tendons (overuse) • Lyme Disease: tick bite  joint pain, arthritis, skin rash, flu-like symptoms

  31. Robert Griffin III (RGIII) • Repaired lateral collateral ligament (LCL) • Reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) 2nd time

  32. Common Knee Injury: Hockey Puck

  33. Knee Repair: ACL Surgery YouTube Video: ACL Surgery

  34. Knee Replacements

  35. Knee Replacement Surgery Knee Replacement Surgery (Pre-Op Video)

  36. Hip Joint

  37. Hip Arthritis

  38. Hip Replacements