The Rosetta Stone. Found in 1799 near the town of Rosetta ( Rashid in Arabic) by French Engineers during Napoleon's occupation of Egypt. After the French surrendered Alexandria to the English in 1801, the stone became English property, and has been on display in the British Museum since 1802.
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Hieroglyphic script fell out of use during the 4th and 5th centuries CE. Alexander conquered Egypt in 332 BCE, thus leading to an influx of Greek settlers and the gradual domination of Greek over hieroglyphic writing (which gradually became restricted to religious themes). Temples using hieroglyphics continued to be built, but it was a language that few could read and bore no resemblance to the speech of that era. The deathblow to hieroglyphics came with the Christianization of Egypt. The last dated hieroglyph is 394 CE, about 80 years after Egypt became Christian. Subsequent writing was either Greek or Coptic, and so the Dark Ages of Egyptology had begun.