Nuclear fission and fusion. Types of decay process Rates of decay Nuclear stability Energy changes Fission and fusion. . . . . Forces at work in the nucleus. Electrostatic repulsion: pushes protons apart Strong nuclear force: pulls protons together
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Types of decay process
Rates of decay
Fission and fusion
Forces at work in the nucleus
Neutrons only experience the strong nuclear force
Neutrons act like nuclear glue
Long range repulsive force with no compensation from attraction
Upper limit of stability
Atomic number decreases
Alpha particle emitted
Rate = k x N
t = 0, N = No; t = t1/2, N = No/2
2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
The decay series from uranium-238 to lead-206. Each nuclide except for the last is radioactive and undergoes nuclear decay. The left-pointing, longer arrows (red) represent alpha emissions, and the right-pointing, shorter arrows (blue) represent beta emissions.
E = mc2
Mass of individual particles = 4.03188 amu
Mass of He nucleus = 4.00150 amu
Mass loss = 0.03038 amu
E = mc2
1 gram 1014 J
HAverage mass per nucleon varies with atomic number
The binding energy per nucleon for the most stable isotope of each naturally occurring element. Binding energy reaches a maximum of 8.79 MeV/nucleon at 56Fe. As a result, there is an increase in stability when much lighter elements fuse together to yield heavier elements up to 56Fe and when much heavier elements split apart to yield lighter elements down to 56Fe, as indicated by the arrows.