WELCOME!. Making LHS Safe February 4 & 5, 2009 Jim Hanson, School Psychologist. Live your life . so that your children can tell their children that you not only stand for something wonderful - you acted on it. Don Zadra. Purpose of the Presentation: . Bullying: Latest Research Policies
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WELCOME! Making LHS Safe February 4 & 5, 2009 Jim Hanson, School Psychologist
Live your life ... so that your children can tell their children that you not only stand for something wonderful - you acted on it. Don Zadra
Purpose of the Presentation: • Bullying: Latest Research • Policies • LHS Research 2003/2008 • Responding to intolerant statements training • School/personal next steps
How is bullying defined? “A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students.” (Olweus, 1993)
Lincoln’s Definition of Bullying Threatening, insulting, demeaning or systematically excluding any student or group of students in such a way as to disrupt or interfere with the District’s mission or the education of any student. Portland Public Schools
Forms of bullying/violence • Verbal (name calling, teasing, threats, sexual comments or gestures) • Relational (spreading rumors, leaving out, email or blogging) • Physical (pushing, hitting, stealing, physical and sexual assault)
Who is involved right now? • Victims (11% currently, 30% frequently) • Bullies (13%) • Bully-Victims (6%) • Witnesses (80% of students, 58% of HS Teachers) Associated environmental factors: • Conventional crime • Child maltreatment • Having a peer or sibling be victimized • Sexual abuse • Witnessing violence Holt, M.K., Finkelhor, D., & Kantor, G.K. (2007).
Outcomes • Victims: loneliness, depression, school avoidance, suicidal ideation • Bullies: conduct problems, delinquent behaviors, crime • Bully-Victims: psychiatric problems, lower self esteem, fewer friends, most stigmatized Holt, M.K., Finkelhor, D., & Kantor, G.K. (2007).
Why? • Sexual orientation (38%) • Look, talk or dress (33%) • Race (20%) • Lower SES (14%) • Gender (11%) • Religion (10%) Bradshaw, C. P., Sawyer, A. L., & O’Brennan, L. M. (2007).
What makes a difference? • Teachers’ knowledge and attitudes about minority groups • School Norms-having policies, visibility of school commitment (e.g., “Respect Our Differences” posters) • Teachers’ perceived behavioral control-teacher training and administrative support for teachers intervening in verbal assaults (e.g., this training and administrator follow-through when referrals are made) McCabe, P.C., Rubinson, F. (2008)
Additional Factors For Boys • Teacher support (without it, victimization status can be predicted; 38% of victims reported no teacher connections) • School (climate, administration) • Father support for depression Davidson, L. M. & Demaray, M. K. (2007).
Additional Factors For Girls • Parent support most important, particularly mother support for depression • Classmate support associated with increased retaliation by victim Davidson, L. M. & Demaray, M. K. (2007).
TEACHER ATTITUDES/BELIEFSOregon TSPC Ethics The competent educator demonstrates: • Ability to provide a climate for students that is conducive to learning and respects the rights of all persons without discrimination; • Advocacy for social justice; • Awareness of laws and policies affecting learners; • Creates a respectful and collaborative environment.
TEACHER ATTITUDES/BELIEFSResearch • Teachers who agreed that bullying “was a part of life” were more likely to report that students’ bullying was acceptable and to believe that they made things worse when they intervened. • Being bullied as a student (53% of all teachers) did not influence teachers’ beliefs about their own efficacy in intervention. • 22% of teachers report having been bullied at school as an adult by another staff member (8.8%), a parent (7.7%) or a student (6.3%). Bradshaw, C. P., Sawyer, A. L., & O’Brennan, L. M. (2007).
School Norms: Policies • GLSEN’s 2003 National School Climate Survey found a relationship between student safety, school attendance and safe schools laws. Among the several key findings is that LGBT students who did not have (or did not know of) a policy protecting them from violence and harassment were 40% more likely to report skipping school out of fear for their personal safety. Only 8 states have such policies. • 28% of LGBT high school students drop-out because of harassment relating to sexual orientation. • LGBT students who can identify supportive teachers/staff have GPA’s more than 10% higher than their peers.
PPS Board Policy-Norms • Signs against intimidation and bullying shall be posted in all schools • Staff in-service, focusing on the recognition of, prevention of, and consequences for harassment, intimidation and bullying • Students shall be informed and reminded, at least twice a year, of the definition of, consequences for and obligation to report harassment, bullying and intimidation. This can be accomplished in the form of class discussion or activity • Respect for cultural differences demonstrated. Bullying and harassment behaviors will not be tolerated at school or school related activities
SCHOOL NORMS:PPS Discipline Handbook • Abusive/Profane Language: Writing or saying anything which ridicules or humiliates another person on account of age, color, creed, disability, marital status, national origin, race, religion, sex or sexual orientation. • Bullying/Harassment/Hazing: Disturbing consistently, by pestering or tormenting; abusive words.
SCHOOL NORMS“Respect Our Differences” Posters • Visible reminder of educators' commitment to a fair and welcoming learning environment for all students and families.
TEACHER BEHAVIORAL CONTROL: Staff Training • Name It • Claim It • Tame It • Do you remember how?
TEACHER BEHAVIORAL CONTROL: Administrative Support-Consequences • Minor or First Offense: Conference, Contract, Class, Minor Suspension • Serious or Repeated Offense: Major Suspension, Police Referral, Expulsion.
LHS Research Project 2003-8 • Student Questionnaire-Number of Offensive Comments about Minorities • Public Posting of Respect Our Differences Posters (Norms) • Yearly Staff Training in Responding to Intolerant Statements-Tame It, Name It, Claim It, and Reframe It (Teacher Behavioral Control)
How many times per day do you hear a comment that would be offensive to: Ethnic/racial minority Sexual Minority Woman Person of different abilities Lincoln High School Climate
The Results: 2003 and 2008 Racial Minority: 3.5 3.1 LGBTQ: 9.0 4.2 Women: 4.0 2.8 Different Ability: 3.0 3.1
Other categories: 2008 write-ins • Jewish (5 responses, average 8.5) • Other religions (5 responses, average 6.3) • Weight (4 responses, average 4.4) • Men (4 responses, average 3.9) • Poor (3 responses, average 4.6) • Swearing (3 responses, average 9.0)
What do students do? 2003 & 2008 2003 2008 • Join in: 8% 11% • Ignore: 59% 59% • Stop it: 22% 18% • Support: 9% 10% • Report it: 1% 1%
“I tell a lot of racist jokes but not to anyone but people who don’t take offense.” “I am made fun of because of my race a lot.” “People make jokes all the time. I have not seen it to really harm someone’s feelings.” “We need to change the way students treat each other…name calling should never be present in an academic atmosphere.” “It bothers me when I hear, “That’s so gay” or the “N” word. Racially offensive words make me INCREDIBLY uncomfortable.” What LHS students write in 2008
What do teachers do? 2003 2008 • Join in: 1% 4% • Ignore: 23% 25% • Stop it: 65% 58% • Support Victim: 1% 6% • Report it: 9% 6%
Comparison to National • Average US high school students hear anti-gay slurs 25 times a day … yet teachers who hear these slurs fail to respond 97% of the time! • In Massachusetts, 53% of students surveyed reported hearing epithets from their own teachers • GLSEN Survey 2003
How do we compare? Have you ever heard a Lincoln High School teacher make a comment that a woman or a minority might find offensive? 2003 2008 No: 55% 65% Yes: 45% 35%
Questions based on data • Significant reduction in number of GBLT offensive comments, about the same in other categories-what are your reactions? • Are the Respect Our Differences posters working? • Has teacher modeling improved? • What role did recent cultural and demographic changes (e.g., GSA, BSU, Obama, Senate Bill 2 from 2008, different cohort: younger generation more aware) play in our results? • Most students perceive that teachers intervene when they hear offensive comments; many go unnoticed • Students are still ignoring offensive comments-no training is provided to them • Interest on students’ part to do something-what are possible venues? • Aligning student training with staff/parent training? • Public posting of Tame, Name, Claim & Reframe model?
Empowerment in School • Youth are becoming empowered by taking action in their schools to create groups which support the premise that all students deserve the right to respect and safety
Basic Rights Oregon 2008 • Legislative anti-bullying bill • Ensure wider adoption of anti-bullying policies • Clear notice and complaint procedures • Comprehensive approaches to anti-bullying • OEA, other professional groups • March 6, 2009 “Day of Action”
Interrupting name-calling is one of the most important actions all educators can engage in on a daily basis • Name it • Claim it • Tame It
Small Groups of 3 • Actor, Responder, Observer • What is easy? • What do you hear yourself leaving out? • Brevity of “bullying first-aid” versus longer, more thorough methods • Obstacles to follow-through
How important you are The reality is that YOU might be the most positive person in this young person’s life and that doesn’t mean you yourself have to be a minority.
Personal Action Plan • One thing you will do to remember the Name, Claim & Tame model