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American Sign Language Natural Language Generation and Machine Translation Systems. Written Preliminary Examination II Computer and Information Science University of Pennsylvania September 11, 2003. Matt Huenerfauth. Committee: Norm Badler, Chair Martha Palmer Mitch Marcus. Overview.
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Written Preliminary Examination IIComputer and Information ScienceUniversity of PennsylvaniaSeptember 11, 2003
Committee:Norm Badler, ChairMartha PalmerMitch Marcus
____ndiHELPPRO.2 PRO.2 MAN Ixi
Photos: Seamless Solutions, Inc.Simon the Signer (Bangham et al. 2000.)Vcom3D
ViSiCAST: Broadest linguistic coverage and only system still under development.
Workbench: ASL grammar intermediate, but few lexicon entries or transfer rules.
TEAM: Demo grammar and lexicon.
Zardoz: Limited by schema development. Minimal grammar and lexicon. System minimally implemented.
Direct: No Systems in this Survey. Word for word. Sign dictionary lookup.
TEAM: Synchronous Tree Adjoining Grammar
Zardoz: Spatial Dependency Graphs
NMS tokens: begin-furrow … end-furrow
Zardoz: NMS tokens: begin-furrow … resume
Workbench: Calculates NMS from c-structure result. NMS merely complements the syntax.
ViSiCAST: NMS not implemented.
TEAM: Parameterized motion templates. Specify path w/ “goal” & “via” points. Good!
Zardoz: Doll Control Language. Lexical specs stored hierarchically. Good!
ViSiCAST: Signing Gesture Markup Lang. Sign language specific – well-suited. BEST!
Workbench: MH segments are final output. Very ASL specific, but Good! may be hard to animate. Bad!
ViSiCAST ignores classifiers.
TEAM does as well.
Workbench explained how classifier signs fit into MH Model and characterized some.
Zardoz is only system to address how to generate them using complex spatial reasoning on information stored in the translation schemata. But not a practical approach. Hand-coding individual schema.
TEAM & Zardoz do not allow intervention.
ViSiCAST allows manual intervention during MT to fix errors before propagation.
Workbench requires intervention in order to operate. Does not attempt any reference resolution.