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Reading Comprehension for Literary Text. Schenectady City School District March 28, 2008 Session 2 The slides in today’s presentation are available at www.amybenjamin.com (click on “recent presentations”). Topics: About reading comprehension and literature Summary and Beyond

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reading comprehension for literary text

Reading Comprehension for Literary Text

Schenectady City School District

March 28, 2008

Session 2

The slides in today’s presentation are available at

www.amybenjamin.com (click on “recent presentations”)

Topics:

About reading comprehension and literature

Summary and Beyond

Reader Response (Dialectical Journaling)

Vocabulary for literature

Traditional themes and motifs: Reading the signs

slide2

Tier II Words

Tier III Words

Tier I Words:

Domain-specific

terminology;

“Glossary” words

On-the-job words

Language of academics,

business, government

“Vocab List” words

Everyday Language:

Ask

Dead

Name

Find out; figure out

Answer

Rain

Use

Sharp

Get

Take apart and put

together

balance

Photosynthesis

Cytoplasm

Metamorphosis

Asymmetrical

Bathysphere

Rhetoric

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Artifact

Habeas corpus

Diaspora

Polysyndeton

Adjective

Interrogate

Deceased

Designate; designation;

identify, identification

Ascertain; determine

Precipitate, precipitation

Utilize; employ

Acute

Acquire

Analyze; synthesize

equilibrium

x

chr___

___ic

ph

__y__

___sis

Code-switching

Prefix/root/suffix

slide3
AWL
  • Academic Word List

Averil Coxhead

570 words that are used in academics, but

not in conversation (CALPs: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)

2,000-3,000: words that are sufficient for basic interpersonal communication (BICs)

reciprocal teaching model

Structure: How is this

  • information organized?
  • Narrative/Description
  • Classification/definition/example
  • Comparison/Contrast
  • Cause & effect
  • Process analysis)
  • How do you know?

P. 109

Reciprocal Teaching Model

Group 2

Group 1

Main ideas:

What is the main

idea? How do you

know? (Express

the main idea in

one sentence)

Visualizers:What do you

see while reading this?

Explain your mental

visuals.

Group 4

Group 3

Clarifiers:

Identify a few

key words or terms

that others might

not know. Explain

their use in this

context.

anyone can be a challenged reader
Anyone can be a challenged reader:

The amount of distributions from net investment income and net realized capital gains is determined in accordance with federal income tax regulations, which may differ from generally accepted accounting principles. These “book/tax” differences are either considered temporary or permanent in nature. Key differences are the treatment of short-term capital gains, foreign currency transactions, organization costs and other temporary differences. To the extent that these differences are permanent in nature, such amounts are reclassified within the capital accounts based on their federal tax-basis treatment; temporary differences do not require reclassifications. To the extent distributions exceed net investment income and/or/net realized capital gains for tax purposes, they are reported as distributions of paid-in capital.

Semi-Annual Report for a Mutual Fund

what would you have to do to understand this text
What would you have to do to understand* this text?

Seek outside help

Read it again

Look for a simplifier

Formulate questions: Know what I don’t know

Know what the pronouns refer to (this, that, these, those)

*Understand:

Be able to use it for its intended purpose

Be able to explain it in my own words

thieves a previewing procedure
THIEVES: A previewing procedure

“Stealing” information before reading

T: Title

H: Headings

I: Introductions

E: Every first sentence of each paragraph

V: visuals and vocab

E: End-of-chapter questions

S: Summarize

slide9

Poetic language

Reader expected to infer

indirect meanings

Descriptive

Technical terms

Sequential

Logical ordering

Cause and effect

Narrative mixed with description

“Anything can happen”

Story of human experience;

plot, theme, description

Facts, processes, procedures,

rules, theorems

Few pictures, chapter headings

Diagrams, tables, charts,

visual cues to main ideas

Informational text

Literary Text

Language:

Organization:

Content:

Textual Features (appearance)

narrative
Narrative

Somebody in wanted ,but ,so.

Key plot events

Obstacles;

Conflicts

Motivation

Main Character

Setting

summarizing a gateway skill
Summarizing: A Gateway Skill
  • Builds awareness of main idea during reading
  • Foregrounds key information; backgrounds supportive information and details
thinking skills
Thinking Skills
  • Summary (Precis):
    • Main steps at key points
    • NOT: details
    • NOT: opinions
    • NOT: commentary
    • NOT: interpretation
why learn summary skills
Why Learn Summary Skills?
  • Gateway skill to thinking beyond literal
  • Providing textual reference in literary analysis
  • In Research Writing:
    • “Review of the Literature”
    • Abstract
method f or struggling readers
Method f or Struggling Readers
  • Stop reading at key points:
    • Teacher marks 4 key stopping points in text
    • One-sentence summary after each key point
    • Carefully attend to each sentence before moving on
    • Vocabulary checkpoints
on paraphrasing
On Paraphrasing
  • The Four-in-a-Row Rule:
    • Lift no more than four words in a row from a sentence in the text
on paraphrasing17
On Paraphrasing
  • The Sentence Structure Rule:
    • Can’t have same number of sentences in the paraphrase as the original: Combine sentences
beyond summary
Beyond Summary
  • Step One: Write a one-page summary of a familiar story
  • Step Two: Reduce the summary to 2/3 of a page; Now, add commentary
  • Step Three: Reduce the summary to 1/3 of a page: Now, add commentary
summary
Summary
  • Use summary writing as a comprehension strategy
  • Teach and practice summary skills explicitly
  • Use summary-writing skills to get beyond summary; to integrate summary into commentary
strategies
Strategies

Double-Entry Journals

Aka dialectical journal:

“Brain Prints”

Literal Level: What is happening?

  • Reminds me of…
  • I don’t’ understand…
  • Predictions
  • Questions
  • Words that I want
  • Phrases that I like
traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs

Daytime/nighttime (sunrise/sunset)

Seasons

Eastward/Westward

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

I. Traditions of representing the passing of time

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs22

Passions out of control

Knowledge

Ignorance

Death

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

II. Traditions of the elements: fire, water, ice, light, darkness

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs23

Apples; trees in a garden

Snakes

Offerings from an outsider

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

III. Traditions of representing lost ideals, loss of innocence,

deadly seduction

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs24

Trickery: Destruction

Creative energy

Power

Ability to deceive and cause chaos

The Trickster archetype: Satan, Spider, Coyote,

Monkey

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

IV. Traditions of representing disorder:

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs25

Martyrdom & sacrifice

Groups of 12 followers of a rebel leader

Wandering; seeking

Sermonizing

Crosses; trees

Fish

Isis and Osiris; Dionysus; Orpheus

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

V. Traditions of representing

crucifixion and resurrection

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs26

Dawn/dusk

Teenage years

Beaches; tides

Sleep

Drugged state

Transitions

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

VI Traditions of representing

ambiguity (states of in-between)

reading conversations
Reading Conversations:

Types of conversations frequently found in literature:

fighting loving

disagreeing expressing tenderness

competing

refusing making “small talk” to

protesting avoid “big talk”

asserting power

advising

seducing

deceiving

reading conversations28
Reading Conversations:

Analyzing Conversation:

Are the conversants understanding or

misunderstanding each other?

Are we supposed to find this conversation

funny? touching? ironic?

Are we supposed to be reading the

conversation at a level above that of the

characters? (Do we understand something

that they don’t?)

other things to notice
Other Things to Notice

Hand-held items

Descriptions of nature: Is nature kind or

harsh? Does nature coincide with or

mock the characters’ experience

What other stories is this story like?

How are the characters like their homes?

secondary school reading

Secondary School Reading

Vocabulary

Background knowledge is the most important factor in

reading comprehension.

Vocabulary is the most important factor in background

knowledge.

Vocabulary provides access to concepts.

best practices in vocabulary instruction
Best Practices in Vocabulary Instruction:

Depth of processing:

Multiple exposures

Multiple meanings

Multiple contexts

Multiple forms of a word

Opportunity to communicate

Purposeful repetition

Treating phrases as words

Verbal and Nonverbal processing

processing for meaning
Processing for Meaning
  • Give students opportunities to:
    • Talk
    • Write (formal and informal)
    • List
    • Categorize
    • Explain to each other
    • Formulate questions
    • Brainstorm
    • Draw
rule of thumb
Rule of Thumb

New learners need SIX (meaningful)

exposures to a new word during the

initial lesson and at least

THIRTY additional exposures

during the ensuing month.

slide34

Target Word:

Vocabulary Chart:

Glossary Definition:

Visual:

Draw or find a picture:

My guess:

Definition in my own words:

Complete sentence of at least ____words:

Must contain an action verb and a visual image.

slide36

Morphology Kit

Adverb-making suffix:

-ly

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs37

Daytime/nighttime (sunrise/sunset)

Seasons

Eastward/Westward

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

I. Traditions of representing the passing of time

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs38

Passions out of control

Knowledge

Ignorance

Death

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

II. Traditions of the elements: fire, water, ice, light, darkness

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs39

Apples; trees in a garden

Snakes

Offerings from an outsider

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

III. Traditions of representing lost ideals, loss of innocence,

deadly seduction

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs40

Trickery: Destruction

Creative energy

Power

Ability to deceive and cause chaos

The Trickster archetype: Satan, Spider, Coyote,

Monkey

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

IV. Traditions of representing disorder:

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs41

Martyrdom & sacrifice

Groups of 12 followers of a rebel leader

Wandering; seeking

Sermonizing

Crosses; trees

Fish

Isis and Osiris; Dionysus; Orpheus

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

V. Traditions of representing

crucifixion and resurrection

traditional literary themes and motifs reading the signs42

Dawn/dusk

Teenage years

Beaches; tides

Sleep

Drugged state

Transitions

Traditional Literary Themes and Motifs: Reading the Signs

VI Traditions of representing

ambiguity (states of in-between)

reading conversations43
Reading Conversations:

Types of conversations frequently found in literature:

fighting loving

disagreeing expressing tenderness

competing

refusing making “small talk” to

protesting avoid “big talk”

asserting power

advising

seducing

deceiving

reading conversations44
Reading Conversations:

Analyzing Conversation:

Are the conversants understanding or

misunderstanding each other?

Are we supposed to find this conversation

funny? touching? ironic?

Are we supposed to be reading the

conversation at a level above that of the

characters? (Do we understand something

that they don’t?)

other things to notice45
Other Things to Notice

Hand-held items

Descriptions of nature: Is nature kind or

harsh? Does nature coincide with or

mock the characters’ experience

What other stories is this story like?

How are the characters like their homes?