Putting Down Roots Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Putting Down Roots Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society
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Putting Down Roots Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society

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  1. Putting Down RootsOpportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society CHAPTER 3

  2. What am I?

  3. What am I?

  4. What am I?

  5. Rise of a Commercial Empire • “Mercantilism” • One country’s gain is another country’s loss • English leaders ignored colonies until 1650s • Navigation Acts passed in 1660 • Was suppose to generate revenue for the crown and monopolize American Trade • Planters hurt by Navigation Acts (Increased prices of goods) • New England merchants skirted laws • After revisions, Navigation Acts eventually benefited colonial merchants

  6. Navigation Acts I’m bloody filthy rich! furniture lumber tools iron textiles cotton Most products could be sold only to England. ex: sugar, tobacco, indigo

  7. All products going to the colonies had to first go through England where the products were taxed spices tea tea spices

  8. Effects of the Navigation Acts Smuggling occurs but Navigation Acts eventually becomes accepted

  9. Life Expectancy in the Colonies New England Chesapeake Came over with mostly males (Normal family life impossible) High mortality rate created the largest social impact Without immigration, population would have declined • Came over in families which led to a high reproduction rate and low mortality rate that strengthened social stability • Church membership and education was highly valued

  10. Women New England Chesapeake Scarcity gave some women bargaining power in marriage market Childbearing extremely dangerous (shorter life expectancy by 20 yrs compared to NE) • Women’s roles • Farm labor • Went to church more then men (2 to 1) • Women could not control property • Divorce difficult • Both genders accommodated themselves to roles they believed God ordained

  11. Socio-Economic Structure New England Chesapeake Tobacco based economy led to Large landowners who controlled much of labor Great planters create social order: Gentry become colony’s elite leaders Invested in workers/slaves Amassed huge tracts of land Greater disparities of wealth Servitude was more like slavery • Absence of very rich created a new social order • New England social order: • Local gentry of prominent, pious families • Large population of yeomen loyal to local community • Small population of landless laborers, servants, poor • Only moderate disparities of wealth • Servitude was more an apprenticeship

  12. Origins and Destinations of African Slaves, 1619-1760

  13. Race and Freedom in British America • Indians decimated by disease • European indentured servant pool waned after 1660 • Planter class in Chesapeake and Carolina’s need labor • Enslaved Africans to fill demand for labor

  14. African American Identities • All Africans participated in creating an African American culture (part African + part American) • Widespread resentment of debased status • Armed resistance such as South Carolina’s Stono Rebellion of 1739 a threat • This led to slave owners to increase their power over their slaves

  15. Civil unrest in the Colonies • English colonies experienced unrest at the end of the seventeenth century • Winners gained legitimacy for their rule • Examples • Bacon’s rebellion • King Philips War • Glorious Revolution