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第九章 现场数据收集、不响应误差和问卷检查         Data Collection in the Field, Nonresponse Error, and Questionnaire Screening. 我们正面临一个艰难的时代。公众越来越不情愿参与调查。我们公司使用过多种激励、奖励,甚至引诱的方式,但 “ 不合作者 ” 的数量似乎一直在增加。. NONSAMPLING ERROR IN MARKETING RESEARCH. Total Survey Error =

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data collection in the field nonresponse error and questionnaire screening
第九章 现场数据收集、不响应误差和问卷检查        Data Collection in the Field, Nonresponse Error, and Questionnaire Screening
slide2
我们正面临一个艰难的时代。公众越来越不情愿参与调查。我们公司使用过多种激励、奖励,甚至引诱的方式,但“不合作者”的数量似乎一直在增加。我们正面临一个艰难的时代。公众越来越不情愿参与调查。我们公司使用过多种激励、奖励,甚至引诱的方式,但“不合作者”的数量似乎一直在增加。
slide3

NONSAMPLING ERROR IN

MARKETING RESEARCH

Total Survey Error =

Sampling error (due to sample plan and sample size)

Plus...

Nonsampling error (all other errors in the survey)

slide4
营销调研中的非抽样误差
  • 各类不响应误差
  • 数据收集误差
  • 数据处理误差
  • 数据分析误差
  • 解释误差
  • 在问题的定义、文字表述中出现的误差以及所有与抽样误差不同的误差
  • 一般而言,在数据收集阶段最有可能出现大的非抽样误差。
slide5
数据收集现场的可能误差
  • 现场工作人员误差与被调查者误差
  • 故意误差与非故意误差
slide6

NONSAMPLING ERRORS:

FIELDWORKER ERRORS

  • Intentional Errors
    • Interviewer cheating
    • Leading the respondent
  • Unintentional Errors
    • Interviewer characteristics
    • Interviewer misunderstanding
    • Fatigue
slide7

NONSAMPLING ERRORS: RESPONDENT ERRORS

  • Intentional Errors
    • Falsehoods
    • Nonresponse
  • Unintentional Errors
    • Misunderstandings
    • Guessing
    • Attention Loss
    • Distractions
    • Fatigue
slide8

FIELD DATA COLLECTION QUALITY CONTROL

  • Control of Intentional Fieldworker Error
    • Supervision
    • Validation
  • Control of Unintentional Fieldworker Error
    • Orientation sessions
    • Role-Playing sessions
  • Control of Intentional Respondent Error
    • Anonymity
    • Confidentiality
    • Incentives
    • Validation Checks
    • Third-Person Technique
  • Control of Unintentional Respondent Error
    • Reversals of Scale Endpoints
    • Prompters
slide9
不响应误差
  • 不响应误差是指预期的被调查者拒绝参与调查或是拒绝回答调查问卷中的某些问题。
slide10

NONRESPONSE ERROR IN SURVEYS

  • Refusal to Participate in the Survey
  • Break-Offs During the Interview
  • Refusals to Answer Specific Questions or Item Omissions
slide11
测量调查中的不响应误差(测量响应率)
  • 响应率:是在样本总体中完成的访问的百分率。
  • 完成的访问(completed interview)。
slide12

MEASURING NONRESPONSE ERROR IN

SURVEYS

Response Rate =

Number of completed interviews

Number of eligible units in the sample

slide13

存在无效样本时的响应率

Response Rate =

响应者

响应者+[响应者/(响应者+不合格者)]*(拒绝者+无达到者)

slide14
降低不响应率
  • 每一种数据收集方式都存在着一些特殊的不响应问题的可能性,从历史上看,邮寄调查的情况最糟糕。
  • 对于邮寄调查,应采取事先通知(Advance Notification )、金钱激励(Monetary Incentives)和邮件回访(Follow-Up Mailings)等策略。
  • 为了减少不在家、忙音和没有回答的情况的发生,应该尝试作几次回访。
slide15
调整结果以减少不响应误差
  • 加权平均 (weighted averages)
  • 超额抽样(oversampling)
slide16

PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE SCREENING

  • Checks of Completed Questionnaires
    • Unsystematic/Systematic
  • What to Look For in Questionnaire Inspection
    • Incomplete Questionnaires
    • Nonresponses to Specific Questions/Item Omissions
    • Yea- or Nay-Saying Patterns
    • Middle-of-the-Road Patterns
    • Unreliable Responses
slide17
调查问卷预查
  • 对完成问卷的非系统和系统检查;
  • 在问卷检查时应寻找:不完整问卷;对某些具体的问题不响应;全赞成或全反对模式;中间路线模式;不可信的响应。