resilient steel plate shear walls analysis of performance using opensees and teragrid resources
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Resilient Steel Plate Shear Walls: Analysis of Performance Using OpenSees and TeraGrid Resources. Patricia M. Clayton University of Washington. Jeffrey Berman (PI) Laura Lowes (Co-PI). NEES-SG: SPSW Research. Tasks: Develop a resilient SPSW

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resilient steel plate shear walls analysis of performance using opensees and teragrid resources

Resilient Steel Plate Shear Walls: Analysis of Performance Using OpenSees and TeraGrid Resources

Patricia M. Clayton

University of Washington

Jeffrey Berman (PI)

Laura Lowes (Co-PI)

nees sg spsw research
NEES-SG: SPSW Research
  • Tasks:
    • Develop a resilient SPSW
    • Develop performance based design tools for SPSW
    • Develop a new model for SPSW web plates
    • Explore the behavior of coupled SPSWs and develop design recommendations

Jeff Berman and Laura Lowes

Michel Bruneau

Larry Fahnestock

K.C. Tsai

Jeff Dragovich

Rafael Sabelli

Sponsored by NSF through the George E. Brown NEES Program

what is a resilient steel wall
What is a Resilient Steel Wall?
  • Combines benefits of Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs) with self-centering technologies
  • SPSW provides:
    • Ease of construction
    • High strength and initial stiffness
    • Ductility
    • Yielding over many stories
    • Replaceable energy dissipation elements (steel plates)
  • Post-Tensioned (PT) Connection provides:
    • Self-centering capabilities
    • Quick return to occupancy after earthquake
conventional spsw behavior
Conventional SPSW Behavior
  • Resists lateral load through development of Tension Field Action

angle of

lateral

inclination

load

HBE

a

tensile

stresses

Web plate

VBE

HBE

diagonal

Courtesy of Berman and Bruneau

folds

conventional spsw behavior1
Conventional SPSW Behavior
  • Idealized hysteretic behavior of SPSW with simple HBE-to-VBE connections:

VSPSW

Unloading

Plate yields

D

Low Stiffness

1st Cycle

2nd Cycle

pt connection behavior
PT Connection Behavior
  • Provides self-centering capabilities
    • Connection is allowed to rock about its flanges
    • PT remains elastic to provide recentering force
  • Requires some energy dissipation
    • Examples from previous research:
      • Yielding angles (Garlock, 2002)
      • Friction devices (Iyama et al., 2009; Kim and Christopoulos, 2008)

Garlock (2002)

Iyama et al. (2009)

pt connection behavior1
PT Connection Behavior
  • Nonlinear elastic cyclic behavior of PT connection:

VPT

Connection

Decompression

D

1st Cycle

qr

2nd Cycle

combined system resilient spsw
Combined System: Resilient SPSW

VPT

VSPSW

D

D

Unloading

VR-SPSW

Plate yields

Connection

Decompression

Plates Unloaded

1st Cycle

2nd Cycle

D

Connection

Recompression

performance based design
Performance-Based Design

Collapse

Prevention

Repair of Plates Only

V

V2/50

V10/50

First occurrence of:

    • PT rupture
  • Excessive PT yielding
  • Excessive frame yielding
  • Excessive story drifts

No Repair

First occurrence of:

    • PT yielding
  • Frame yielding
  • Residual drift > 0.2%

V50/50

Plate yielding

Connection decompression

Vwind

D

D50/50

D20/50

D10/50

prototype building designs
Prototype Building Designs
  • Based on 3- and 9-story SAC buildings in LA
  • Vary number of R-SPSW bays in building
  • 2 design types:
    • Plates designed for V50/50
    • Plates designed for V10/50/R
analytical model
Analytical Model
  • Nonlinear model in OpenSees
  • SPSW modeled using strip method:
  • Tension-only strips with pinched hysteresis
  • Strips oriented in direction of tension field
analytical model cont
Analytical Model (cont.)
  • PT connection model:

Shear transfer

Rocking about HBE flanges

Compression-only springs at HBE flanges

Diagonal springs

HBE

VBE

PT tendons

Truss elements with initial stress (Steel02)

Rigid offsets

Physical Model

Analytical Model

  • Compression-only springs at HBE flanges
  • Diagonal springs to transfer shear
dynamic analyses
Dynamic Analyses
  • Each model subjected to 60 LA SAC ground motions representing 3 seismic hazard levels
    • 50% in 50 year
    • 10% in 50 year
    • 2% in 50 year
  • Used OpenSeesMP to run ground motions in parallel on TeraGrid machines

Processor = 0

Processor = 1

R-SPSW model

Processor = n-1

using teragrid
Using TeraGrid

OpenSeesMP .tcl scripts

Batch submission script

Ground acceleration records

#!/bin/bash

#$ -V

#$ -cwd

#$ -N jobName

#$ -o $JOB_NAME.o$JOB_ID

#$ -e $JOB_NAME.err$JOB_ID

#$ -pe 16way 64

#$ -q long

#$ -l h_rt=48:00:00

#$ -M [email protected]

#$ -m be

set –x

ibrun $HOME/OpenSeesMP $WORK/OSmodel.tcl

Abe

Ranger

slide15
Using TeraGrid

Run all models and ground motions simultaneously using OpenSeesMP

Processor = 0

Processor = 1

Abe

R-SPSW model

Processor = n-1

Ranger

using teragrid1
Using TeraGrid

All results in the time it takes to run one ground motion.

OpenSees recorder & output files

Abe

Ranger

response history results
Response History Results
  • Example of Response during 2% in 50 year EQ
    • System Response
  • Connection Response
response history results1
Response History Results
  • Statistical results from all 60 ground motions
  • Performance Objectives:
    • No plate repair (Story drift < 0.5%) in 50/50

(this example designed using V10/50/R; plates not explicitly designed to remain elastic)

    • Recentering (Residual Drift < 0.2%) in 10/50
    • Story drift < 2.0% in 10/50 (represents DBE)
    • Limited PT, HBE, and VBE yielding in 2/50

All performance objectives met !!!

comparing designs
Comparing Designs

R-SPSW designed using V50/50

R-SPSW designed using V10/50/R

Plates designed using reduced “DBE” forces

  • Plates designed to remain elastic in 50% in 50 year EQ
  • Larger plate thicknesses & frame members
  • Improved response
    • Recentering at all hazard levels
    • Smaller peak drifts
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Preliminary design procedure developed for R-SPSW
  • Dynamic analyses show R-SPSW can meet proposed performance objectives
    • including recentering in 10% in 50 year EQ
  • Highly nonlinear model  significant computational effort
  • Use of TeraGrid resources reduced computational time by more than 90%
  • Experimental studies on R-SPSW currently taking place
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