Faculty Mentor: Andrea Kirk, Honors College Violent Gang Safe Street Task Force Accomplishments Gangs and Preventive Measures Lee Ann Kelley, College of Arts and Sciences, Honors College Faculty Mentor: Andrea Kirk, Honors College Why Should We Care? Abstract My Goal The prevalence of gang involvement among youth has worsened over the years. My research includes an overview of gang history and brief statistics on gang involvement in today’s society. The risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement are discussed. Specifically, I am concerned with motivations for gang membership, prevention programs that can be implemented, and with determining why some programs have been unsuccessful. I hope to design an effective program that will be implemented as a preventive measure. Its primary purpose will be to reduce gang membership and to educate students about the negative consequences of gang involvement. The proposed program would be introduced to students in the third grade. The curriculum would focus on goal-setting strategies, individual responsibility, conflict resolution techniques, and the dangers of becoming involved with gangs. • Estimates from the U.S. Department of Justice provide a rough profile of gang composition: • • In 2000, 94 percent of gang members were male and 6 percent were female. • • 39 percent of gangs active in 2000 had at least one female member; 2 percentof gangs were identified as being composed of predominantly female members. • • In 1996, 50 percent of gang members were under the age of 18, but in 1999 only 37 percent of gang members were under the age of 18. • • In 1999, 47 percent of gang members were Hispanic, 31 percent were African American, 13 percent were white, and 7 percent were Asian. These percentages have remained fairly steady over the years. • In 2001, 100 percent of cities with a population of 250,000 or more reported gang activity, and 85 percent of cities with a population between 100,000 and 229,999 reported gang activity. • To design a program to reduce gang membership and to educate students about the negative consequences of gang involvement. • Additional purposes: • Educate parents • Promote community awareness • Provide comprehensive and coordinated services to meet the needs of at-risk families Levels of Gang Involvement A Child in South Central Gangs in Schools Percentage of Students Reporting Gang Activity at Schools References • CRIPS AND BLOODS: Made in America. Dir. Stacy Peralta. Perf. Jim Brown, Forest Whitaker, Tom Hayden. DVD. New Video Group, 2008. • Dishion, T., Nelson, S., & Yasui, M. (2005, February). Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement From Middle School Adaptation. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 62-73. Retrieved September 30, 2009, doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_6 • Federal Bureau of Investigation - Violent Gangs. FBI — Federal Bureau of Investigation Homepage . Retrieved November 5, 2009, from http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/ngic/violent_gangs.htm • Gang Proliferation - National Gang Threat Assessment 2009. Welcome to the United States Department of Justice. Retrieved November 5, 2009, from http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs32/32146/gangs.htm#start • Li, X., Stanton, B., Pack, R., Harris, C., Cottrell, L., & Burns, J. (2002, December). Risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement among urban African American adolescents. Youth & Society, 34(2), 172-194. Retrieved September 30, 2009, doi:10.1177/004411802237862 • Peterson, D., & Esbensen, F. (2004). THE OUTLOOK IS G.R.E.A.T.--What Educators Say About School-Based Prevention and the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program. Evaluation Review, 28(3), 218-245. Retrieved December 3, 2009, from http://csaweb112v.csa.com/ids70/results.php?SID=5g35jp720tm1705kj40hjorqg5&id=2 • Walker-Barnes, C., & Mason, C. (2001, March). Perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement among African American and Hispanic women. Youth & Society, 32(3), 303-336. Retrieved September 30, 2009, doi:10.1177/0044118X01032003002 • http://www.fbi.gov/aboutus/transformation/gangs.htm Acknowledgments Wendy K. Wilkins, Ph.D., Provost and Vice President for Academic AffairsGloria C. Cox, Ph.D., Dean, Honors College Andrea Kirk, Ph.D., Honors College Source: National Crime Victimization Survey.