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Diversion from prosecution: retuning the crash magnets Professor Stephen Stradling Emeritus Professor of Transport Psychology Edinburgh Napier University. RSGB Chester 15 Nov 2011. DIVERSION FROM PROSECUTION COURSES: RETUNING THE CRASH MAGNETS

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Diversion from prosecution: retuning the

crash magnets

Professor Stephen Stradling

Emeritus Professor of Transport Psychology

Edinburgh Napier University

slide3

RSGB Chester 15 Nov 2011

DIVERSION FROM PROSECUTION COURSES:

RETUNING THE CRASH MAGNETS

STEPHEN STRADLING Edinburgh Napier University & Timperley

WITH

DR PAUL BROUGHTON Owl research

DR CRIS BURGESS Exeter University

DR FIONA FYLAN Leeds Metropolitan University

DR HELEN SCOTT Sunderland University

slide4

Driver taking a short cut driving the wrong way on a 1-way street

Driver remaining in lane 2 or 3 on motorway when lane 1 is empty

Driver overtaking on the inside at speed

Driver clocked doing 38 in a 30

P2W rider crossing a solid white line to overtake

Driver mounting the kerb to avoid stationary traffic

Driver taking the wrong lane at a roundabout, causing confusion

Driver changing lane on a dual carriageway without signalling, causing non-injury collision

Driver stopped doing 51 in a 40

P2W rider cutting corners on country road at speed

WHAT DO ALL THESE HAVE IN COMMON?

slide5

WHAT DO ALL THESE HAVE IN COMMON?

Moving traffic offences

Failures of socialisation and training

Crash Magnets: driving with reduced safety margins, purposely or inadvertently

Potential prelude to a prang or disruption of progress: IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE

THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP, A SECOND CHANCE

slide6

News of the World: David Cameron's 'second chance' for a friend returns to haunt him

"I decided to give him a second chance and no one has ever raised serious concerns about how he did his job for me," Cameron said. "But the second chance didn't work out and he had to resign all over again.”

Clegg: I warned Cameron about Coulson

Sunday, 17 July 2011 12:40 PM

By politics.co.uk staff

Nick Clegg warned David Cameron about Andy Coulson before and after the election, he has confirmed.

slide7

Moving traffic offences

Failures of socialisation and training

Crash Magnets: driving with reduced safety margins, purposely or inadvertently

Potential prelude to a prang or disruption of progress: IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE

THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP A SECOND CHANCE?

SO IT ISN’T WORSE NEXT TIME - Retribution OR Remediation?

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SAFE –

Ignore

REMEDIABLE –

Retune

DANGEROUS –

Prosecute

slide9

SKILL DEFICIT

ATTITUDE DEFICIT

SAFE –

Ignore

REMEDIABLE –

Retune

DANGEROUS –

Prosecute

slide10

NATIONAL COURSES approved by ACPO developed through NDORS

NATIONAL RIDE COURSE

NATIONAL SPEED AWARENESS COURSE

NATIONAL DRIVER ALERTNESS COURSE

NATIONAL DRIVING 4 CHANGE COURSE

NATIONAL WHAT’S DRIVING US? COURSE

Driving and riding are activities that involve sharing the road with many, often more vulnerable, legimately present, others. Attendance at a course with the physical co-presence of other such road users, often with different outlooks and trip agendas, helps convey this message.

The provision of common national courses means that drivers and riders can choose from any of the participating providers, making courses more accessible.

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RIDE

SPEED AWARENESS

DRIVER ALERTNESS

DRIVING 4 CHANGE

WHAT’S DRIVING US?

P2W rider cutting corners on country road at speed

P2W rider crossing a solid white line to overtake

Driver clocked doing 38 in a 30

Driver stopped doing 51 in a 40

Driver taking a short cut driving the wrong way on a 1-way street

Driver changing lane on a dual carriageway without signalling, causing non-injury collision

Driver remaining in lane 2 or 3 on motorway when lane 1 is empty

Driver taking the wrong lane at a roundabout, causing confusion

Driver overtaking on the inside at speed

Driver mounting the kerb to avoid stationary traffic

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DEFICIT to remediate

RIDE Bikers Evaluated attitude VIOLATION

SPEED AWARENESS Drivers Evaluated observation + attitude ERROR OR VIOLATION

CONFORMERS, COMPLIERS & MANIPULATORS

DRIVER ALERTNESS Drivers Evaluated skill + attitude ERROR & VIOLATION

(care or consideration)

DRIVING 4 CHANGE Drivers Piloting skill (care) ERROR

WHAT’S DRIVING US? Drivers Piloting attitude (consideration) VIOLATION

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NATIONAL RIDE COURSE

  • An alternative to prosecution for offences committed under Section 3, Section 39 and excess speed (non-camera) of the Road Traffic Act 1988.
  • Objectives:
  • increase awareness of current riding behaviour and
  • engender a positive and responsible approach to motorcycling.
  • The course encourages clients to continue to ride their motorcycle, but to
  • examine their individual attitudes and motivations
  • examine their approach to risk
  • probe their beliefs surrounding inappropriate riding behaviour
  • consider the positive effects and benefits of mindset change
  • maintain these positive changes after course completion
  • Duration 1 day
  • Location classroom
  • Cost £86 - £101
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NATIONAL SPEED AWARENESS COURSE

  • An alternative to prosecution for low level speeding (limit +10% + 2–6mph at the time of evaluation; now limit +10% + 2-9 mph). (e.g., was 35-39, now 35-42 in a 30)
  • Objectives:
  • identify the benefits of complying with speed limits
  • raise awareness of appropriate attitudes towards the misuse of speed
  • understand the consequences of speeding and explore the advantages and disadvantages of speeding
  • improve knowledge of speed limits and skills in identifying different limit areas
  • recognise personal responsibility for choice of speed
  • recognise impact of driving behaviour on other road users
  • provide opportunity to increase knowledge and skills in hazard perception
  • Duration 4 hrs (5 hrs)
  • Location classroom (+ on-road)
  • Cost £75 - £95
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Self-reported behaviour at 30 mph speed camera in built-up area

                • HUSSAR SAC
  • UK n=1,066 n=362
  • Total Total
  • Before At After % % % %
  • Conformer 30 30 30 47% 24%
  • Nervous conformer 28 25 28 16% 63% 9% 32%
  • Complier 35 30 30 11% 22%
  • Late complier 35 35 30 0% 11% 7% 29%
  • Full manipulator 40 30 40 14% 24%
  • Partial manipulator 40 30 35 5% 5%
  • Released manipulator 30 30 40 7% 26% 3% 32%
  • Defier 50 50 50 0.9% 0.9% 7% 7%
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Self-reported behaviour at 30 mph speed camera in built-up area

                • HUSSAR SAC
  • UK n=1,066 n=362
  • Total Total
  • Before At After % % % %
  • Conformer 30 30 30 47% 24%
  • Nervous conformer 28 25 28 16% 63% 9% 32%
  • Complier 35 30 30 11% 22%
  • Late complier 35 35 30 0% 11% 7% 29%
  • Full manipulator 40 30 40 14% 24%
  • Partial manipulator 40 30 35 5% 5%
  • Released manipulator 30 30 40 7% 26% 3% 32%
  • Defier 50 50 50 0.9% 0.9% 7% 7%

Skill deficit

Attitude deficit

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NATIONAL DRIVER ALERTNESS COURSE

  • The National Driver Alertness scheme should be used to remove from the criminal justice system those drivers who by a driving error have offended against Section 3 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 and offer them a course at an approved course venue. Where there is evidence that the person’s driving amounts to more than an error of judgement, the case should be referred for prosecution.
  • Driving without Due Care and Attention OR without reasonable consideration for other road users.
  • Objectives:
  • re-calibrate drivers' perceptions of task difficulty
  • help drivers avoid factors that reduce their driving competence
  • increase drivers' awareness of the causes and consequences of collisions
  • challenge drivers' dysfunctional beliefs
  • enable drivers to identify their individual driving dangers and develop an action plan to stay safe on the roads
  • Duration 1 day
  • Locationclassroom + on-road
  • Cost £125 - £200
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NATIONAL DRIVING 4 CHANGE COURSE

  • A lapse of concentration, an error of judgement, or a general mistake, or a lack of awareness of the law pertaining to the offence that he or she has committed, that has not had wider consequences (i.e. a collision)
  • Aim
  • To raise awareness of driving skill deficits and start the process of addressing it
  • Objectives
  • To increase understanding of what constitutes safer driving behaviour
  • 2. To increase understanding of their own skill deficits
  • 3. To improve their driving skills
  • To increase their motivation to further improve their driving
  • Duration 1/2 day
  • Location on-road
  • Cost £80 - £85
the w model
The W Model

WHO

WHY

1)Who was in the car with you at the time?

Children Peer 25-60 Disabled Other

(2) Who do you think your behaviour affected?

    • Why did you do what you did?
  • (Statement to discuss)

WHERE

    • What type of road did the incident occur on?
  • Type of RoadSpeed Limit Tick as identified
  • Urban30
  • RuralNational
  • Dual Carriageway70
  • Motorway70

WHAT

WHEN

  • 1) What was happening at the time?
  • (Statement to discuss)

Time/dates  

Time of day Day of week Month

Am Pm

Do you think this had any effect on your incident, if yes why?

research
Research

Course evaluation and client satisfaction

Does the course change behaviour?

Does the course change attitudes?

Research Methodology

Behaviour/attitude questionnaire

  • Pre course
  • Post course I
  • Post course II (4 week follow-up)
research1
Research

Research Question

What are the underlying causation factors for specific referral offences?

Research Methodology

ADI to complete a record sheet for each participant:

  • The Offence and circumstances (W template)
  • Three items to work on (agreed following drive 1)
  • Three items promised for practice (agreed following drive 2)
  • Other comments
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NATIONAL WHAT’S DRIVING US?

  • An act or omission that can be construed as intentional or deliberate, where … the driver knew their actions amounted to an offence, that had not had wider consequences (i.e. a third party complaint or collision)
  • Aims of the course are to produce safer and more responsible attitudes towards driving, and to increase motivation to drive with consideration for other road users.
  • Objectives:
  • Increase perceptions of driving as a complex and difficult task.
  • Increase recognition that the way they drive and the risks they take increase the likelihood of crashing.
  • Increase awareness of the physical, emotional, and financial consequences of being involved in a crash.
  • Increase understanding of the need for traffic rules.
  • Increase insight into the things that influence their driving.
  • Duration 4 hrs
  • Location classroom
a plan for the day
A plan for the day
  • 9am – 10.30am: Presentations and activities
  • 10.30-10.45am: Break
  • 10.45 – 11.45: Group work and feedback
  • 11.45- 12.15: Presentations and activities
what are you going to do differently
What are you going to do differently?
  • Thinking about your incident, what situation might you be in that means you might drive in this way again?
  • Where will you be driving to?
  • Who will you be travelling with?
  • What are you going to do differently?
    • Before the drive?
    • During the drive?

Teach to use prompts/cues

Prompt intention formation

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COURSE EVALUATION

RIDE Before, After and Follow-up inc 4 FGs, tutor interviews;

compared to untreated group of bikers

SPEED AWARENESS Before, After and 3 mo Follow-up inc 6 FGs

DRIVER ALERTNESS Before, After and 2 mo Follow-up;

compared to Driver Improvement Scheme

DRIVING 4 CHANGE Before and After + 2 FGs, instructor interviews, online provider questionnaire

WHAT’S DRIVING US? Before and After + 2 FGs, instructor interviews, online provider questionnaire

Enhanced administrative arrangements such as supplier accreditation, training the trainers, process monitoring including quality control inspections, and robust outcome evaluation involving before-after designs, are being put in place to ensure we know what works, with whom, and under what conditions.

slide30

EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS

  • RIDE Before, After and Follow-up inc 4 FGs, tutor interviews;
  • compared to untreated group of bikers
  • RIDE clients report:
  • Lower speeds in specific riding locations following course attendance
  • Braking sharply less frequently, in both urban and rural areas
  • Leaving larger safety margins between their hypothetical maximum speed and their ‘normal’ riding speed
  • They agreed or strongly agreed that the course:
  • helped them to identify their own bad riding habits (80%)
  • gave them a better understanding of the hazards riders face on the roads (92%)
  • They:
  • were surprised that they were not chastised or patronised during the course, and appreciated the knowledge and experience of the tutors
  • were expecting the course to focus on skills and techniques that would make them a safer rider, and that it would provide them with practical skills, and this expectation was not met
  • found RIDE an acceptable alternative to points and a fine
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EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS

  • SPEED AWARENESS Before, After and 3 mo Follow-up inc 6 FGs
  • 99% of clients who responded at follow-up reported that they had changed their driving after attending the course: driving more slowly, being more aware of the road environment and of their speed, and feeling less stressed while driving. While a minority (9%) described how they had found it difficult to break their driving habits, and that they sometimes felt pressure from other drivers to speed up, particularly on motorways, the majority (90%) reported that they had not experienced any difficulties in applying what they had learnt.
  • The course:
  • provides information that challenges attitudes towards speeding
  • helps them to recognise that the advantages are not as great as they may have assumed
  • helps them understand the reason for speed limits being set as they are
  • helps them realise that the driving environment is more hazardous than they had appreciated
  • gives them greater insight into their own driving, including the pressures that they face and the limits to their own knowledge
  • gives them skills in identifying speed limits, and easy-to-recall tips (e.g., COAST), knowledge and skills to improve their driving style
  • Many become advocates for the course and share their new knowledge and skills with friends and family. They promote slower more relaxed driving styles and actively encourage others to slow down.
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EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS

  • DRIVER ALERTNESS Before, After and 2 mo Follow-up;
  • compared to Driver Improvement Scheme
  • At follow-up 99% reported that they had changed their driving
  • Being more aware of what could happen in different situations
  • It’s made me think ahead more
  • I am more observant with near or distant road users 'making last minute changes‘
  • I am a lot more tolerant. I do not get upset about minor things
  • I am slower, allowing more space, more relaxed and knowledgeable about traffic signs as I had misread one when I had the accident
  • I drive much more economically now which means I am less rushed and safer and more aware of the road
  • Agreed:
  • the classroom instructors knew what they were talking about
  • the driving instructors understood their driving
  • the instructors cared that you stay safe on the road
  • Driver Alertness was as effective in changing self-reported attitudes and behaviours in 1 day as Driver Improvement in 1.5 days
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REFLECT UPON YOUR PRACTICES

s.stradling@napier.ac.uk