FTTP & Voice Over IP. An Brief Introduction Elizabeth Correa- System Solutions Architect www.bettworld.com/ACM2007. Agenda. Fiber to the Premises Overview VoIP Overview Asterisk Demo. Video on Fiber to the Home. http://www.ftthcouncil.org/?t=225. Why should you care about FTTP?.
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FTTP & Voice Over IP An Brief Introduction Elizabeth Correa- System Solutions Architect www.bettworld.com/ACM2007
Agenda • Fiber to the Premises Overview • VoIP Overview • Asterisk Demo
Video on Fiber to the Home • http://www.ftthcouncil.org/?t=225
Why should you care about FTTP? • FTTP networks transmission speeds of up to 100 megabits per second downstream – and almost as much upstream. • As of March 2007, 1.34 million U.S. homes have direct fiber optic connections. • The number of fiber-to-the-premises subscribers has doubled over each of the last two years.
Broadband Access Technologies ATM DSLAM xDSL Copper – up to 18 000 feet ~ 7 Mbps Passive splitter ATM 622 Mb/s down OLT 32 subs/PON BPON 30+ Mbps and Video Fiber – up to 60 000 feet 155Mb/s up Fiber Passive splitter Ethernet 2.4 Gbp/s down OLT 32 subs/PON GPON Fiber – up to 60 000 feet 1.2 Gbp/s up 100+ Mbps and Video Fiber Active RT OLT FTTC Fiber ~ 40 Mbps total Copper – up to 500 feet Active RT OLT FTTN Fiber ~ 25 Mbps total Copper – up to 5000 feet
PON- Passive Optical Network • A passive optical network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 32. • A PON consists of an Optical Line Termination (OLT) at the service provider's central office and a number of Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) near end users.
PON Technologies • Current technology used is BPON (Broadband PON) Speed: 622 (Mbit/s) down/ 155 Mbit/s up • Next technology to be used is GPON (Gigabit PON) supports enhanced security, and choice of Layer 2 protocol (GEM, Ethernet). Speed: 2,488 (Mbit/s) down/ 1,244 Mbit/s up
Bandwidths & Services Upstream Downstream Voice and Data @ 155 to 622 Mbps Voice and Data @ 622 Mbps Video 42 MHz 550 MHz 860 MHz HD/VOD Analog TV Digital TV Passive Optical Network (PON) Details – ITU G.983 EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) Video “Optical DSLAM” Voice & Data Voice/Data & Video OLT (Optical Line Terminal) “Optical Modem” ONT (Optical Network Terminal) Optical Couplers(WDM) Upstream 1310 nm 1x32 Optical Splitter Video (l/RF) Data (AAL5) POTS (AAL2)
Why should you care about VoIP? • VoIP Saves Big Money • You Can be the Mack Daddy/Mommy of Cool by setting up your own “skype like” phone system with your friends
History of the PSTN • The PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) is made up of switches. • Human Operator (1880 American Bell Founded) (Think Andy Griffith Show) • Automatic exchanges called steppers (early 1900’s) • Digital Switch which used Stored Program Control exchange (1971) • Soft switches- Software switches
Erna Schneider Hoover • Patented the first programmed switch at Bell Laboratories. • Prioritized processes within stored program control switching systems. • The patent on the system is one of the first software patents ever issued (1971) and the principles of the system are still in use today.
PSTN Basics • SS7 Signaling is the protocol used to communicate with the Class 5 Switch. • A Class 5 Switch receives the call, looks up the number in the Local Exchange Routing Guide (LERG). • The Class 5 Switch then sets up the voice “bearer” traffic circuit. • TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) transports the voice voice “bearer” traffic over high speed connections called trunks.
Circuit Switching • Network resources are “static.” • When data needs to be sent, a circuit is established and used till the end of the transmission .
Packet Routing • The Internet brought new ways of routing data: TCP/IP. • Every router can send a packet which ever way it sees is best. • Routers use a dynamic routing table which is constantly updated with the status of network traffic.
Shift to Packet routing • VoIP is actually just voice data broken into IP packets and sent over the a network. • But it still needs to use the same concepts as the PSTN had: • Signaling • Bearer
New Signaling Protocols • The ITU-T created h.323 in 1995 • The IETF created SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) in 1996
Bearer or Voice Traffic Protocol • Both h.323 and SIP can work Real Time Protocol (RTP)
SIP vs h.323 • H.323 was designed with a good understanding of the requirements for multimedia communication over IP networks, including audio, video, and data conferencing. It defines an entire, unified system for performing these functions, leveraging the strengths of the IETF and ITU-T protocols.
SIP • SIP was designed to setup a "session" between two points and to be a modular, flexible component of the Internet architecture. • It has a loose concept of a call (that being a "session" with media streams), has no support for multimedia conferencing, and the integration of sometimes disparate standards is largely left up to each vendor.
Set up your own VoIP Network with Asterisk • Asterisk is a PBX (Private Branch Exchange) • Manages the voice calls and the connectivity between different telephone networks and protocols (PSTN, VoIP, etc...) and giving the functionalities of a PBX like automatic answer, autoreply, menus, etc. • Runs on Linux, MacOSX, OpenBSD, FreeBSD • Works with SIP or h.323 for signaling and RTP for bearer traffic
Sources Please see bettworld.com/ACM2007 for links to sources