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Confined Space and Metro Fire. Rescue 21 & Engine 21. Rescue 21 Staffing of 4. High angle/low angle rope Building collapse Water Confined space Trench RIC -Rapid Intervention Crew Vehicle Extrication. Engine 21 Staffing of 3. Cross Trained ALS (Paramedic) Hose, Water & pump

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Confined space and metro fire

Confined Space and Metro Fire

Rescue 21


Engine 21

Rescue 21 staffing of 4
Rescue 21 Staffing of 4

  • High angle/low angle rope

  • Building collapse

  • Water

  • Confined space

  • Trench

  • RIC -Rapid Intervention Crew

  • Vehicle Extrication

Engine 21 staffing of 3
Engine 21Staffing of 3

  • Cross Trained

  • ALS (Paramedic)

  • Hose, Water & pump

  • General Firefighting

What to expect from metro fire
What to expect from Metro Fire

  • First due engine company

  • Medic (ambulance)

  • Battalion Chief

  • Closet Truck Company

  • Rescue 21 & Engine 21

  • Hazardous Materials unit

  • Overhead personnel (PIO)

Recognize the danger

Recognize the Danger:

A major cause of confined space injuries/fatalities is the failure to recognize the incident for what it is….


Always keep in mind
Always keep in mind

  • The Survival Profile of Victim !!!!!

  • According to statistic we are going after victims not patients

  • Provision for non-entry rescue

  • Every C.S. incident will be investigated by OSHA.

  • Entry into a C.S. is mission specific

Osha will be looking for
OSHA will be looking for…

  • The C.S. to determine if it meets the requirements for a Permit Required Confined Space (p.r.s.c.)

  • Two permits

  • Training records (authorized)

  • Provision(s) for non-entry rescue

3 most common osha citations issued in calif
3 Most Common OSHA Citations issued in Calif.

  • Failure to provide hazard(s) communication to rescuers

  • Failure to provide appropriate equipment

  • Failure to provide training on equipment


  • AB 111 = negligent supervisor

  • AB 1127 “The Big One” Jan. 2000

  • Title 8 CCR GISO 5156, 5157 & 5158

Assembly bill 111

Assembly Bill 111

One of the first regulatory laws enacted to hold C.S. entrants accountable.

Ab 1127

AB 1127 “$$”

Enacted in January 2000. Says we show up, allow something to happen, somebody gets injured/killed, we share responsibility.

Is Prosecuted as a Felony!!

Title 8 ccr 5156
Title 8 CCR, 5156…

Grants an exclusion to

  • Construction operations

  • Agricultural operations

  • Marine terminal operations

  • Shipyard operations

  • Telecommunications manholes/Vaults

  • Grain handling facilities

  • Natural gas distribution

  • Electrical utility operations underground vaults

Title 8 ccr 5157
Title 8 CCR, 5157…

  • Specific requirements on how to enter a Permit Required Confined Space.

  • Applies to Rescue Companies

  • Lists the mandatory components

  • Includes appendices that may be enforceable by OSHA

Title 8 ccr 5158
Title 8 CCR, 5158…

  • Lists requirements for those 8 industries that are exempted under 5156(b) (2)

A confined space is
A Confined Space is…

  • An area large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter to perform assigned work and:

  • Has limited or restricted means for entry/egress and;

  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy

Types of confined spaces
Types of Confined Spaces

  • Sewers

  • Railroads Cars

  • Vaults and pits

  • Vessels, silos, storage bins

  • Hoppers, pipelines

Reason for entering a confined space
Reason for Entering A Confined Space

  • Cleaning

  • Inspections

  • Maintenance

  • Training

  • Rescue

A permit required confined space
A Permit Required Confined Space…

  • Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere or,

  • Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant or,

  • Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section or,

  • Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard

Silos industrial or agricultural

Silos -Industrial or Agricultural

Manholes sanitary or storm
Manholes- Sanitary or Storm

What are the hazards to rescuers at c s incidents
What are the Hazards to Rescuers at C.S. incidents?

  • Atmosphere 65%

  • Engulfment 13%


  • Physical 7%

  • Corrosive

  • Biological

  • Psychological

Osha says these are mandatory positions
OSHA Says these are Mandatory Positions

  • Entry Supervisor

  • Attendant

  • Entrant

  • Back-up entrant

What is an entry
What is an Entry?

The action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit required confined space, and includes ensuing work activities in that space

Considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrants body breaks the plane of an opening into the space

Mandatory components for a c s entry
Mandatory Components for a C.S. entry

  • Written Policy (including Permit)

  • Lock out/Tag out

  • Provide rescue/standby

  • Atmospheric monitoring

  • Communications

  • Ventilation (unless it increases hazard)

  • Retrieval Line (provision for non-entry rescue)

  • Appropriate harness

  • Mechanical Advantage if > 5’ fall

Confined space and metro fire

Lock Out/Tag Out is….

  • Isolation

  • Purging

  • Inerting

  • Ventilation

  • Barricades

  • Lock out/tag out

Lock out tag out kit
Lock-Out/Tag-Out Kit

  • Padlocks

  • Hasps & tags

  • Plug & valve covers

  • Chain

  • Electrical Tester

Reasons for monitoring
Reasons for Monitoring

  • Assess the survival profile of the victim

  • Atmospheres are the #1 killer of C.S. occupants

Hazardous atmospheres
Hazardous Atmospheres

  • Oxygen levels below 19.5% or above 23.5%

  • Atmosphere at or above 10% of the LEL

  • Airborne combustible dusts which reduce vision to 5’ or less

  • Atmosphere with products/vapors at or above their IDLH levels.

What are we monitoring for
What are we monitoring for ?

  • Oxygen

  • Flammable/Explosive atmospheres

  • Selected toxics

    Usually CO & H2S



-Recorded as a %

-OSHA says 19.5% - 23.5% is

acceptable entry range

-Oxygen is always checked first

Flammable or explosive atmospheres

Flammable or Explosive atmospheres

Usually recorded as % LEL. ppm or % gas

10% of the LEL is the upper limit for entry

Difference between LEL 100% & vapor 100%

Hydrogen sulfide h2s

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S

Colorless, odor of rotten eggs

Destroys olfactory senses

Ppm, 10 ppm entry limit

Carbon monoxide co

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Colorless, odorless, explosive


25 ppm is limit for entry

How we monitor
How we monitor

  • Prior to entry (approach monitoring)

  • Continuously during entry

  • At 4’ intervals



  • 5157 states mandatory between Attendant & Entrant

  • Radio

  • Hardwired

  • Rope signals O.A.T.H.


  • Increases survivability profile

    - reduces LEL’s to safe levels

    - temperature conducive for human


  • Replaces contaminated air

    Air exchanges

  • Reduces explosion chances

Retrieval system
Retrieval System

The equipment including a retrieval line, class III harness, wristlets, if appropriate, (and lifting device) used for non-entry rescue of workers from a permit-required confined space

Mechanical advantage
Mechanical Advantage

  • Required for vertical C.S. more than 5’ deep

  • Hand operated, approved winch w/ cable

  • Rope and pulleys with brake

  • Not considered the retrieval line

Types of respiratory protection
Types of Respiratory Protection

  • APR - Air Purifying Respirator

  • SCBA – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

  • SAR - Supplied Air Respirator

Recognize exposure to yourself co workers
Recognize exposure to yourself & co-workers

  • Headache

  • Dizziness

  • Nausea

  • Smell or rotten eggs

  • Euphoria

Any questions

Any Questions?

Thank you