WATER SOFTENING. removal of hardness Hardness is?... How is Softening done?. primarily Ca, Mg, plus Fe, Mn, St, Al. Precipitation of Ca and Mg, or Ion exchange of Ca / Mg with ion such as Na. Why bother?. Hardness in 300-500 mg/l as CaCO 3 range considered excessive
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Precipitation of Ca and Mg, or
Ion exchange of Ca / Mg with ion such as Na
CO2 + Ca(OH)2 --> CaCO3 + H2O
Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 --> 2 CaCO3 + 2 H20Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 --> CaCO3 + MgCO3 + 2H20Mg(CO3) + Ca(OH)2 --> Mg(OH)2+ CaCO3MgS04 + Ca(OH)2 --> Mg(OH)2 + CaS04MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2 --> Mg(OH)2 + CaCl2CaS04 + Na2CO3 --> CaC03+ Na2SO4CaCl2 + Na2CO3 --> CaC03+ 2NaCl
5.8 mg/l as Mg(OH)2
No, lime-soda ash softening
cannot remove all hardness
What about CO2?
CO2 must be considered because it consumes lime
X Lime Soda Ash